Phobia –  an exaggerated usually inexplicable and illogical fear of a particular object, class of objects, or situation

Different types of Phobias 

Ablutophobia – Fear of bathing or washing

Acousticophobia – fear of noise or sometimes fear of a particular noise like crying

Acrophobia – fear of heights

Acarophobia –  a delusion that the skin is infested with small crawling organisms

Aerophobia – fear or strong dislike of flying

Agoraphobia –  fear of open spaces

Agyiophobia – fear of being in a busy street

Algophobia – fear of pain

Anglophobia – fear of English or England

Anthrophobia – fear of humans

Anuptaphobia – fear of being single

Aquaphobia – fear of water

Astrapophobia – fear of lightening

Atychiphobia – fear of failure

Automysophobia – fear of being dirty

Bathmophobia – fear of slopes and stairs

Bibliophobia – fear of books


Cancerophobia – fear of cancer

Cenophobia – fear of void or open places

Chrematophobia – fear or dislike for money

Claustrophobia – fear of closed places

Cynophobia – fear of dogs


Eleutherophobia – fear of freedom

Entomophobia – fear or dislike for insects

Eosophobia – fear of dawn


Gamophobia – fear of marriage

Gerascophobia – fear of aging or growing old

Glossophobia – fear of speaking in public

Gynophobia – fear of females

Heliophobia – fear of sunlight

Hemophobia – fear of blood

Hydrophobia – fear of water

Kleptophobia – fear of being stolen or stealing

katsaridaphobia – fear of cockroaches


Necrophobia – fear of death/dead

Nosophobia – fear of disease

Nyctophobia – fear of darkness or night


Potophobia/Methyphobia – Fear of alcohol

Pyrophobia – fear of fire


Tachophobia – Fear of speed

Tocophobia – fear of pregnancy or child birth


Xenophobia – fear of foreigners or strangers



1. Ombudsmen –  a person (such as a government official or an        employee) who investigates complaints and tries to deal with problems fairly  (लोकपाल )

The ombudsmen of the village is working on the sewage problem .

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2. Infusion –  the addition of something (such as money) that is     needed or helpful   डालना )

Infusion is needed in your ideas than only we can accept your proposals.

3. Elude – to avoid or escape (someone or something) by being quick, skillful, or clever  ( टाल जाना )

Synonyms – avoid , dodge, evade

He eluded her for no specific reason . 


4. Insurrection – a usually violent attempt to take control of a           government ( विद्रोह )

Synonyms – revolt , mutiny

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5. Compliance – the act or process of doing what you have been         asked or ordered to do  ( अनुपालन )

Synonyms – obedience , submissiveness  

In compliance with the rule , i have changed the notice . 


6. Erstwhile –  in the past , former   (पहले का )

Synonyms – old, past, once time

I met one of my erstwhile friends  in the park.


7. Modicum – a small amount  ( थोड़ा )

Seriously you don’t even have modicum of knowledge.  


8. Mettle – strength of spirit, ability to continue despite difficulties ( साहस )

The test will prove his  mettle .


Important political parties in India

Important political parties in India


Multiple choice Questions from Important political parties in India

Q-1 Which of the following is a valid condition for a party to be National party?

a) A party which has secured six % (6%) of valid votes polled in any lok sabha election or assembly election in the state and atleast four such states and secured 4 Lok Sabha seats.

b) The party has secured atleast 2% of total no. of seats in lok sabha from atleast 3 states.

c) The party is recognised as state party in atleast 4 states.

d) all of the above

e) None

Q- What is a tenure of State Governor?

a) 4 years

b) 5 Years

c) 6 years

d) no tenure

Q- Who administers the oath of a State governor ?

a) CJI

b) High Court Judge

c) President

d) Chief Justice of State

Political Parties of India

  1. According to Representation of People Act, 1951 there is provision to conduct elections of the Houses of Parliament or Houses of the Legislature of State.
  2. As per this law there are two parties – a) Recognized Party and b) Unrecognized Party.

National Party

  1. i) A party which has secured six % (6%) of valid votes polled in any lok sabha election or assembly election in the state and atleast four such states and secured 4 Lok Sabha seats.


  1. ii) The party has secured atleast 2% of total no. of seats in lok sabha from atleast 3 states.


iii) The party is recognised as state party in atleast 4 states is called a “ National Party”.

iv) The National Parties of India are given below :

  1. Indian National Congress (INC)
  2. Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP)
  3. Bahujan SamaJ  Party (BSP)
  4. Communist Party of India (CPI)
  5. Communist Party of India (CPI)(M)
  6. Nationalist Congress Party


State Party-

A Party which has secured at 6% of valid Votes polled in the Assembly election in the State and atleast two MLAs.


The party has secured atleast 3% of the total no. seats in the assembly of the state.


The party has secured at least 6% of valid votes in the lok Sabha election in the state and atleast 1 lok sabha seat is called a state party.


This Status is not permanent, it can be withdrawn by the election commission if the performance of the Party goes below the parameters.


State Executive

  1. Governor
    1. There shall be a Governor for each state provided that the Same person can act as Governor of two or more states.
    2. Simply appointed by the President.


  1. Should be a citizen/35 years/ no office of profit.
  2. Tenure-
    1. 5 years before that
  1.      c)   The oath is administered by the Chief justice of High Court.
  2.     d)   The Salary is decided by the Parliament which is charged upon Consolidated fund of India.
  3.     e)   Pardoning Powers : He has this provision but shall not pardon death sentence and shall not enter in the case of Military Courts.

Comptroller and Auditor General of India

comptroller and auditor general of india 

Important Questions based on Comptroller and Auditor General of India

Q- Who acts as the Guardian of the Public Purse?

a) Supreme Court Judge

b) CAG 

c) ECI

d) None

Q- Who is the Present Comptroller and Auditor General of India?

a) TS Thakur

b) Shashi kant Sharma

c) Vinod Rai

d) Murali Manohar Joshi


Q- The Provision of  functions of CAG is given in which article?

a) Article 147

b) Article 149

c) Article 150

d) Article 153 

Comptroller and Auditor General of India


Article 148-

a) According to this Article-There shall be a Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAGI) appointed by the President and may be removed on Like Grounds and in the Like manner as a Judge of Supreme Court is removed.

b) The Comptroller and Auditor General of India removal is difficult and is removed by the method of Impeachment.

c) The Tenure is 6 years or till 65 years.

d) He or She may resign to the President.

e) After retirement of CAG , he shall not hold any post under the Govt.(s) ( Both the Government).

f) The Functions are :  To Audit all accounts of the Governments ( State and Union Government)  and their agencies and make reports .

g) The reports made by the CAG are submitted to Governor or The President.

h) Furthermore, the reports are put forward of legislatures for discuss and review purposes.


Reports given by the CAG are examined by the Oldest committee called  Public account Committee (PAC) and the committee can act accordingly.


Special points about CAG

  1. The CAG acts as the Watchdog of the Indian Public Finances.
  2. The CAG also acts as the Agent of the Parliament.
  3. The CAG is known as the Guardian of Government Money or Public Purse ( Public Money).
  4. There are four bodies who are considered as the Defensive wall of the Indian Democratic System – Supreme Court, Election Commission of India, Union Public Service Commision and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.


Special Functions of CAG-


  1. The provision of the functions of CAG is given in 
  2. He can check feasibilty of Financial Transactions.
  3. He acts as a Friend, Philosopher and Guide of PAC.
  4. The Present CAG is Shashikant Sharma who was appointed on 23rd May 2013.
  5. The CAG Audits accounts only when Requested by the President or Governor.