SSC Geography Notes-Physiographic Divisions of India

Physiographic Divisions of India

SSC Geography Notes-Physiographic Divisions of India

The word Physiography refers to ‘Physical Geography’. It is derived from two words “Physio” and “Graphy” which means writing facts about physical geography

  • The Northern Mountains

  • The North Indian Plain

  • The Peninsular Plateau

  • Great Indian Desert

  • The coastal Regions

  • Islands



Northern Mountains ( Himalayas)

  • These mountains are the young fold mountains which were formed during the tertiary period of Geological Time Interval.
  • Himalayas are called fold mountains as these were formed due to tectonic collision of Eurasian plateau and Indian plateau.
  • ‘Him’ refers to ice and ‘Alaya’ refers to home, therefore Himalaya refers to home of ice.
  • The Himalayas are divided into :
    • Main Himalayas
    • Trans Himalayas


  • The Himalayas possess sharp peaks and stretch over North West India to North East part of India.
  • It carries  the highest peaks in the world and is most rugged mountain barriers in the world.


Main Himalayas

It includes the three ranges i.e Himadri, Himachal and Shiwalik.

Himadri Himalayas

  • It is also known as Greater Himalayas or Inner Himalayas.
  • These are the continuous mountains for 2400 km with average height of 6000 metres.
  • ‘Him’ refers to snow and ‘adri’ refers to covered, hence Himadri means covered with snow.
  • These himalayas carry world’s most prominent peaks and are composed off granite and perennially covered with snow.
  • For Instance – Mt. Everest, Kanchenjunga, Annapurna, Nanga Parbat.

Himachal Himalayas

  • These are also known as Lesser Himalayas or Middle Himalayas.
  • The average height of these himalayas is 4500 metres.
  • Since they are seasonally free from ice Hence these mountains are centre of attraction for tourist and many tourist place are located here.
  • Pir Panjal range is the longest range of Himachal Himalayas and the most prominent ones are Dhauladhar range and Mahabharat range.

Shivalik Himalayas

  • These are the Outer Himalayas with average height of about 1500 metres above the sea level.
  • Shivaliks are the fragmented Himalayas and these develop a unique geographical feature called ‘Dun’. For instance, Dehradun and Patlidun.

Trans Himalayas

  • These include three ranges  i.e Karakoram range, Zaskar Range and Ladakh Range.
  • They are located in north- west India.
  • Trans Himalayas are also known Tibetan Himalayas.  
  • Famous peak and India’s Highest Peak K2 ( Godwin and Austin) is located here.
  • World’s Highest Battlefield – Kargil in siachen glacier, Drass Sector is located here. It also world’s expensive battlefield.
  • The river Indus flows between Zaskar and ladakh range.

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