NOUN FOR SSC EXAM

Feb 3 • English, SSC notes • 1872 Views • No Comments on NOUN FOR SSC EXAM

                                      NOUN FOR SSC EXAM

NOUN FOR SSC EXAM-A noun is the name of of a person, place, thing ,quality, condition and action.

Ram lives in Delhi.

I live in hyderabad.

 

Types of noun

Proper noun

This noun denotes the name of a proper person,place or thing.

Jaipur , chandigarh (proper place)

Garima , neha (proper person)

 

Common noun

This noun denotes common persons and places or you can say that it includes name given to person or things of specific class or type.

Boy , girl (common person)

Village , city (common place)

Phone , book (common thing)

 

Collective noun

This noun denotes collection of people or collection of things.

Jury , team , committee etc.

We use singular verb with collective noun.

But if we consider collective noun in terms of members or the members of collective noun are being talked about then we use plural verb with them.

 

The committee has given its decision.

The jury agreed that its verdict is not guilty.

The cricket team practices near the old fort.

 

The team are taking bath in their bathrooms.

The audience are taking their seats.

In the above sentences we are talking about members.

 

Material noun

All the materials are included in this noun.

Tea, plastic, water, gold, oil etc.

 

Abstract noun

This noun denotes quality, condition feelings and ideas of a person.’

Honesty , childhood , anger , pity etc.

 

Nouns are also classified as-

Countable noun

These are the nouns which can be counted .

Eg.- shreya, rupees, boy etc.

As we can count so we can classify them as singular and plural.

Singular verb is used with singular countable nouns.

Plural verb is used with plural countable nouns.

A girl is going.

Girls are going.

Uncountable noun

These are the nouns which we can not count.

Singular verb is used with uncountable nouns.

Eg. – milk,knowledge, oil etc

 

There are certain nouns which can only be used in singular form as they are uncountable in nature-

Luggage, baggage, knowledge, postage, wastage, pottery, poetry, scenery, bakery, confectionary, jewellery, equipment, evidence, information, fuel, cost, dirt, dust, hair, percentage, behaviour etc.

 

We can not make the above mentioned words in plural form by adding ‘s’ with them.

Article a/an cant be used with them.

Much is used with uncountable nouns.

Your hair is beautiful.

She has vast knowledge about buddhism.

The scenery of shimla is very charming.

Harivansh rai bachchan is famous for his poetry.

 

Plural verbs can be used with uncountable nouns by adding certain words before them.

All pieces of information given by him were fake.

(you should notice that here the verb ‘were’ is used for pieces and not for information).

Some packets of bread were given to the orphan.

(Here were is used for packets).

 

                               Noun and Case

We consider four types of case in nouns-

1.Nominative / subjective case

In this case noun is used as the subject of the sentence.

Shyam lives in village.

Delhi is my favourite place.

2. Accusative / objective case

In this case noun is used as the object of the sentence.

I live in delhi.

I have given my notebook to garima.

3. Dative case

In this case noun is being addressed in the sentence.

Ram, read carefully.

Sita, walk slowly.

4.Possessive case

In this case Possession of noun is shown in the sentence. Apostrophe is used to show the   possessions of noun.

Rahul’ s notebook

Riya’ s book

 

We can not use apostrophe with non living things.

 

The teapot’s handle is golden in colour.(wrong)

The handle of the teapot is golden in colour.(correct)

 

Keyboard’s keys are not working well.(wrong)

The keys of the keyboard are not working well.(correct)

 

But while personifying non living things, apostrophe is used-

Death’s hand

Spring’s charm

 

In order to show the possession of Plural noun ending with ‘s’. We do not repeat ‘s’ while using apostrophe with them-

Cows’ horn

Girls’ college

Women’s college (here the plural form does not contain ‘s’ in it.)

 

While pronouncing a noun, if it ends in hissing sound then we do not use ‘s’ while using apostrophe with them-

Peace’ sake

Conscience’ sake

Ganesh’ idol

If the possession of two nouns is same then apostrophe is only used with the latter noun-

Sehrawat and sons’ (shop)

Choudhary and grandsons’ (shop)

Ram and shyam’s brother is very naughty.

 

If the possession of two nouns is different then we use apostrophe with both the nouns-

Dinkar’s and Nirala’s poem

Ram’s and Shyam’s fathers are good friends.  

 

Do not use double apostrophe adjacently

My mother’s cousin’s brother is working in IT sector.(wrong)

The brother of my mother’s cousin is working in IT sector.(correct)

 

My sister’s husband’s mother is not well.(wrong)

The mother of my sister’s husband is not well.(correct)

 

                                          Noun and gender

Gender of nouns is divided into four parts-

1.Masculine gender

It represents male sex

 

There are certain nouns which are used to show strength,energy, power and firmness. Such nouns are considered as masculine in gender. So pronouns representing male gender(he, him, his, himself) are used with them.

Sun,time,death,winter, wind, thunder,ocean,war

The sun glared at me with his cruel eyes.

Death with his bare hands was waiting for her.

Thunder is making his way through the town.

(in the above sentences we are personifying-thunder and death)

 

We always use masculine gender pronouns with the following words-

 

Everyone, anyone, no one, someone,everybody, nobody, somebody, anybody(indefinite pronoun)

Everyone should perform his duties well.

Someone is going outside with his blue bicycle.

 

2.Feminine gender

It represents female sex.

 

There are certain nouns which are used to show beauty, gracefulness,and gentleness. Such nouns are considered as feminine in gender. So pronouns representing female gender are used for them.

Ship,car,train,truth,modesty,pride,liberty,faith,spring,city,country,flattery,virtue,mercy,

nature ,jealousy,the moon,river,the earth,nation,hope,humanity,peace,fame,justice

The moon is dancing in the sky with her bright light.

Nature has shown her cruelty on the people of bhuj.

France is proud of her architects.

(in the above sentences we are personifying -nature and the moon)

 

Note -when geographical conditions of a country are being discussed then we use ‘it’ for the country.

India and its neighbours

 

3.Common gender

It represents both male and female sex.

Thief,neighbour,servant,teacher,doctor,student etc.

 

The  gender of the above nouns is not clear.

As we live in male dominating society so when the gender of the nouns is not clear ,we always use masculine gender for them.

The doctor and his patient are talking loudly.

The teacher is teaching with a red pen in his hand.

 

Baby,infant,child

We do not know the gender of the above nouns.

So we use it,itself, and its for them.

The baby has broken its left arm.

The child who is playing has blue bottle in his hands.

 

But if their gender is mentioned initially then we can use he/she for them according to the gender.

The child who won the competition last night was a boy. He was very active.

The baby was a  girl.She was very beautiful.

 

4.Neutral gender

It neither represents males nor females.

It represents non living things.

Copy,book,chair,etc

 

                                              Rules of nouns

  1. If a noun is followed by a preposition and then the same noun is repeated , singular form of the noun will be used.

He is becoming weak day by day.

Car after car is arriving.

Door to door service will be provided for polio drops.

 

  1. 2. If a definite numeral adjective(one,two,three….) is followed by the following nouns then the nouns should be used in singular form.

Pair, score, hundred, thousand, dozen,million,billion,stone,gross etc.

I have given him two thousand rupees.

I bought four dozen oranges.

I donated six thousand rupees in charity.

 

But if the above mentioned nouns are followed by ‘of’ then the nouns will be used in plural form.

Thousands of people go for hajj every year.

Millions of rupees got wasted on this project.

She donated thousands of rupees.

 

  1. Certain nouns exist in plural form only. We can not make them singular by removing their ‘s’. So plural verb is used with them. Such nouns are-

Pants,pajamas,trousers,shorts,knickers,scissors,tongs,sunglasses,binoculars,spectacles,goggles,Surroundings,outskirts,alms,wages,proceeds,remains,congratulations,regards,thanks,savings,Fireworks,amends,braces,tactics,troops,valuables,belongings etc.

Where are my trousers?

I need a bit time to admire my surroundings.

He was born in noida,on the outskirts of delhi,in 2002.

 

4.some nouns exist in plural form(ends with ‘s’) but they are singular in meaning so we use singular verb with them. Such nouns are-

Physics,economics,linguistics,mathematics,politics,innings,ethics,mumps,measles,rickets,billiards,athletics,news.

Physics is a tough subject.

Billiards is my favourite game.

No news is a good news.

 

5.some nouns exist in singular form(do not end with ‘s’) but are plural in meaning . so plural verbs are used with them. Such nouns are-

Cavalry,gentry,clergy,infantry,poultry,peasantry,cattle,children etc.

The peasantry of this village have their own farms.

The gentry of this colony generally have their get togethers at community centre.

Cattle are grazing in the farm.

 

  1. There are certain nouns that exist in a single form in both singular and plural forms. Such nouns are-

Fish,sheep,series,deer,aircraft,counsel etc.

One fish is there in the pond.

There are many fish in the pond.

 

Some singular and plural forms of nouns are given below.

 

Singular                                    Plural

Phenomenon                           Phenomena

Criterion                                   Criteria

 

Singular                                    Plural

Analysis                                    Analyses

Crisis                                        Crises

Hypothesis                               Hypotheses

Basis                                        Bases

Thesis                                      Theses

Parenthesis                              Parentheses

 

Singular                                    Plural

Spoonful                                    Spoonfuls

Mouthful                                    Mouthfuls

Glassful                                     Glassfuls

Handful                                     Handfuls

Cupful                                       Cupfuls

 

Singular                                    Plural

Commander-in-chief                 Commanders-in-chief

Son-in-law                                 Sons-in-law

Sister-in-law                              Sisters-in-law

Mother-in-law                            Mothers-in-law

Step-father                                Step-fathers

Step-brother                              Step-brothers

Maid-servant                             Maid-servants

Major-general                            Major-generals

 

Singular                                    Plural

Woman                                     Women

Foot                                           Feet

Singular                                    Plural

Dormouse                                 Dormice

Louse                                        Lice

Man                                           Men

Mouse                                       Mice

Tooth                                         Teeth

Goose                                       Geese

Oasis                                        Oases

 

Singular                                    Plural

Child                                         Children

Ox                                             Oxen

 

Singular                                    Plural

Datum                                      Data

Ovum                                       Ova

Dictum                                     Dicta

Memorandum                          Memoranda

Stratum                                   Strata

Agendum                                Agenda

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