Agriculture of India
Agriculture started in India since early Neolithic period (8000 BC- 4000 BC)
Earlier form of agriculture was Pastoralism
Notes on Indian agriculture provided by best SSc Coaching
Dominance of agriculture started during Indus valley civilization (3300 BC-1300 BC)
India ranks 2nd in output of Agricultural Products globally.
Contribution of Agriculture in GDP
Salient Features of Indian agriculture
- Agriculture contributes about 17% in Indian economy and about 55% of people get livelihood from Agriculture.
- 60% of Indian agricultural land depends on Rain fall . 48% for food crop 62% for non food crop.
- During 1957-58 , India had 109 million hectare cultivable land which is now 122 hectare (As reported by RBI)
- Major Commercial crops
- Contribution of Agricultural in exports from India is 13.7%
Indian payment policy is dual payment policy to farmers from Indian Government , at least on books.
- MSP: Minimum Support Price.
- Procurement Price.
Buffer Stock Norms
Buffer stock refer to stock which central government maintains for meeting requirement of nation at any point of time. Buffer stock norms has been most recently revised on 22 Jan 2015. This system was earlier known as Buffer stock or strategic reserve.
Stocking norms are for two factors.
- Operational stock: To meet operational and distributional requirement through PDS.
- Food Security reserve: To meet requirement during shortfall or delay of procurement.
PDS: Public distribution system in India is a system of distribution of staple foods such as Rice, Sugar , Wheat and few other necessary commodities like kerosine for poor people of nation on subsidised rate from market.
This system is jointly maintained by state and central government through Ministry of Consumer affairs.
Major Agricultural Revolutions in India
Blue Revolution: To increase production of aquatic food in 1960. Mr Hiralal chaudhary is known as father of Blur revolution in India. Indian government has recently reincarnated its focus on blue revolution by targeting total export to 1,00,000 cr in 5 yrs.
Brown Revolution: For cocoa production and Now focus on organic cocoa production run in Vishkapatnam region also target Leather production. Brown revolution is helping cocoa growing people to increase per unit production output.
Golden fiber Revolution: For Production of Jute. Golden fiber revolution made India 7th largest producer of wool in world.
Golden Revolution: To enhance agricultural output through Horticulture and harnessing of Honey. Improving quality of Bee breeding around period of 1991-2003.
Green revolution: India was facing shortage of food grains after war with China in 1962 and Famine in 1965-66 and 1966-67 . With help of American scientist Dr Norman Borlaug , Father of green revolution Dr M.S. Swaminathan introduced high yielding wheat seeds and proper utilization of Fertilizers. This made India self sustained in its food supply and further contributed in making India 2nd largest grower of food around globe. This was named as Green Revolution by Dr William Gande.
Grey Revolution: Grey revolution brew with or little prior to green revolution or can be said that grey revolution has been behind success of Green revolution which was all about usage of Fertilizers in Indian farms was run from 1964.
Pink Revolution: Pharmaceutical products, Onions and Prawn production.
Red Revolution: As name suggests Meat production and Tomato production.
Round Revolution: Potato Production.
Silver Fiber revolution: Cotton revolution
White Revolution: Started in India during 1970 by NDDB ( National development dairy board)
Mr Varghese Kurien , known as father of white revolution.
India was a dairy deficit nation and white revolution made India largest producer of dairy products in world about 17% of global output in 2010-11.
Per capita consumption of dairy products doubled in India.
White revolution took its shape for mil products and dairy products in three phases in India.
Phase 1: 1970-1980
Phase 2: 1981-1985
Phase 3: 1985-1996
Yellow Revolution: Oil seed production during 1998 but India again is oil seed deficit nation
Ambrosia revolution: To connect rivers
Evergreen Revolution: for complete agricultural growth.