History of Indian Constitution II

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History of Indian Constitution II

Below are some important points History of Indian Constitution II

Important Acts in History of Indian Constitution II

Government of India -1919

  • This act is also called Montague chelmsford  Reforms.
  • Montague was the secretary of state at that time and chelmsford was  the respective viceroy.
  • According to the Government of India Act -1919 diarchy was introduced.
  • Diarchy means Dual Government.
  • The concept of legislation was introduced by this act.
  • The provincial Budget was separated from the central budget.
  • The concept of Bicameralism was also introduced by this act-According to which legislation should be divided into two houses upper house and lower house.
  • The upper house was called council of state and the lower house was called Legislative assembly.
  • The majority of the both the houses were elected directly.
  • In the year 1919 due to failure of government reforms  ‘Swaraj’ or ‘Self Government’ was formed.

 

Simon commission

  • A group of British members of Parliament of United Kingdom was called simon commission as the chairman of the commision was Sir John Simon.
  • It was the Indian Statutory Commission .
  • All parties boycotted the commission as all the members of commission were britishers.
  • The report was submitted in the year 1930 by the simon commission.
  • The commision recommended the  abolition of Dual government.
  • About three round table conference were held between the year 1930 and 1932.
  • The Second round Table conference was attended by the  Mahatma Gandhi.

 

Salient features of Indian constitution

 

Written  Constitution:

  • The Constitution of India is considered as a written constitution and is also the lengthiest constitution in the world.
  • Initially it considered 395 Articles, 22 parts and 8 Schedules but now they are 449 articles, 25 parts and 12 schedules.

 

Parliamentary form of  government:

  • Indian Constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government.
  • President is nominal head of the state.
  • The Govt. is run by the PM and members of the Council.
  • The Council of Ministers is together responsible to the Parliament.

 

Rigid as well as flexible:

  • The Constitution of India is not fully rigid not fully flexible.
  • The Indian constitution is  partly rigid and partly flexible.
  • This is because of provision of amendment, our constitution has been divided into three parts-
  1. Some of the  provisions of the constitution can be amended by a simple majority in the Parliament.
  2. And some provisions can be amended by a 2/3rd majority of the Parliament and its ratification by at least 50% states.
  3. The remaining provisions can be amended by the Parliament by two-third majority.

 

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