Below are some important points History of Indian Constitution II
Government of India -1919
- This act is also called Montague chelmsford Reforms.
- Montague was the secretary of state at that time and chelmsford was the respective viceroy.
- According to the Government of India Act -1919 diarchy was introduced.
- Diarchy means Dual Government.
- The concept of legislation was introduced by this act.
- The provincial Budget was separated from the central budget.
- The concept of Bicameralism was also introduced by this act-According to which legislation should be divided into two houses upper house and lower house.
- The upper house was called council of state and the lower house was called Legislative assembly.
- The majority of the both the houses were elected directly.
- In the year 1919 due to failure of government reforms ‘Swaraj’ or ‘Self Government’ was formed.
- A group of British members of Parliament of United Kingdom was called simon commission as the chairman of the commision was Sir John Simon.
- It was the Indian Statutory Commission .
- All parties boycotted the commission as all the members of commission were britishers.
- The report was submitted in the year 1930 by the simon commission.
- The commision recommended the abolition of Dual government.
- About three round table conference were held between the year 1930 and 1932.
- The Second round Table conference was attended by the Mahatma Gandhi.
Salient features of Indian constitution
- The Constitution of India is considered as a written constitution and is also the lengthiest constitution in the world.
- Initially it considered 395 Articles, 22 parts and 8 Schedules but now they are 449 articles, 25 parts and 12 schedules.
Parliamentary form of government:
- Indian Constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government.
- President is nominal head of the state.
- The Govt. is run by the PM and members of the Council.
- The Council of Ministers is together responsible to the Parliament.
Rigid as well as flexible:
- The Constitution of India is not fully rigid not fully flexible.
- The Indian constitution is partly rigid and partly flexible.
- This is because of provision of amendment, our constitution has been divided into three parts-
- Some of the provisions of the constitution can be amended by a simple majority in the Parliament.
- And some provisions can be amended by a 2/3rd majority of the Parliament and its ratification by at least 50% states.
- The remaining provisions can be amended by the Parliament by two-third majority.