Important political parties in India

Important political parties in India

 

Multiple choice Questions from Important political parties in India

Q-1 Which of the following is a valid condition for a party to be National party?

a) A party which has secured six % (6%) of valid votes polled in any lok sabha election or assembly election in the state and atleast four such states and secured 4 Lok Sabha seats.

b) The party has secured atleast 2% of total no. of seats in lok sabha from atleast 3 states.

c) The party is recognised as state party in atleast 4 states.

d) all of the above

e) None

Q- What is a tenure of State Governor?

a) 4 years

b) 5 Years

c) 6 years

d) no tenure

Q- Who administers the oath of a State governor ?

a) CJI

b) High Court Judge

c) President

d) Chief Justice of State

Political Parties of India

  1. According to Representation of People Act, 1951 there is provision to conduct elections of the Houses of Parliament or Houses of the Legislature of State.
  2. As per this law there are two parties – a) Recognized Party and b) Unrecognized Party.

National Party

  1. i) A party which has secured six % (6%) of valid votes polled in any lok sabha election or assembly election in the state and atleast four such states and secured 4 Lok Sabha seats.

OR

  1. ii) The party has secured atleast 2% of total no. of seats in lok sabha from atleast 3 states.

OR

iii) The party is recognised as state party in atleast 4 states is called a “ National Party”.

iv) The National Parties of India are given below :

  1. Indian National Congress (INC)
  2. Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP)
  3. Bahujan SamaJ  Party (BSP)
  4. Communist Party of India (CPI)
  5. Communist Party of India (CPI)(M)
  6. Nationalist Congress Party

 

State Party-

A Party which has secured at 6% of valid Votes polled in the Assembly election in the State and atleast two MLAs.

OR

The party has secured atleast 3% of the total no. seats in the assembly of the state.

OR

The party has secured at least 6% of valid votes in the lok Sabha election in the state and atleast 1 lok sabha seat is called a state party.

 

This Status is not permanent, it can be withdrawn by the election commission if the performance of the Party goes below the parameters.

 

State Executive

  1. Governor
    1. There shall be a Governor for each state provided that the Same person can act as Governor of two or more states.
    2. Simply appointed by the President.

Qualification-

  1. Should be a citizen/35 years/ no office of profit.
  2. Tenure-
    1. 5 years before that
  1.      c)   The oath is administered by the Chief justice of High Court.
  2.     d)   The Salary is decided by the Parliament which is charged upon Consolidated fund of India.
  3.     e)   Pardoning Powers : He has this provision but shall not pardon death sentence and shall not enter in the case of Military Courts.

Election commission of India

Election commission of India

Important Questions based on Election commission of India

Q-1 In case of dispute related to elections of  the MP and MLA, the disputes are heard by-

a) Election Commission of India

b) President

c) Supreme Court

d) High Court

Q- Who is the present Chief Election Commissioner of India ?

a) V S Sampath

b) S Y Quiraishi

c) H S Brahma

d) Nasim Zaidi

Q- Which of the following is not the Current Election Commission of India?

a) Aanchal Kumar Jyoti

b) Om Prakash Rawat

c) H S Brahma

d) None of these

Q-  The provision of Election Commission of India is mentioned  in which article?

a) Article 347

b) Article 327

c) Article 324 

d) None of these

Q- The Chief Election Commissioner is removed by-

a) President 

b) Impeachment

c) Resigns Himself 

d) None of these

Election commission of India

Article-324

  1. The Election Commission of India is a constitutional body with the power of Superintendence, direction and Control of :
      1. Preparation of Electoral Rolls.
      2. Conducting of all Elections for –
        1. President
        2. Vice President
        3. Rajya Sabha
        4. Lok Sabha
        5. State Legislative Assembly
        6. Legislative Council
  2. Composition of Election Commission

    1. A chief election commissioner and not more than four Election Commissioner.
    2. The president decides the Strength of the commission time to time.
  3. Qualifications

The Qualifications of the members of the Election commission is not mentioned in the Constitution.

Appointment and Resignation

  1. The ECI is appointed by the president and may resign to  president.
  2. The person who have wide experience in public affairs like IAS officers are chosen for this post.
  3. There is as such no qualification defined for the ECI in the Constitution of India.

Tenure and Removal

  1. The tenure of ECI is 6 years or upto 65 years of age.
  2. The Chief Election Commissioner is removed by the process of Impeachment.
  3. The election Commissioner are removed by the president on the recommendation of Chief Election Commissioner.

Functions-

  1. The ECI supervises Delimitation Commissions.
  2. It gives the recognition to political parties as National Party and State Party.
  3. The ECI allotes symbols to parties/ candidates.
  4. Also the ECI Monitors the Elections Expenditure.
    1. For eg. The Fund for Member of Parliament ( MP ) is 40 lakh with certified account.
  5. The ECI Imposes and Monitors the “Model Code of Conduct” ( An ethical code applicable on all parties and Candidates).
  6. The ECI directly indulges and solves Election Disputes.

Note: i) If Disputes are related to President and Vice President, the Disputes are heard in Supreme Court.

  1. ii) If Disputes are related to MP and MLA, then they are heard in High Court.
  2. The Current Chief Election commissioner of India is Nasim Zaidi.

Comptroller and Auditor General of India

comptroller and auditor general of india 

Important Questions based on Comptroller and Auditor General of India

Q- Who acts as the Guardian of the Public Purse?

a) Supreme Court Judge

b) CAG 

c) ECI

d) None

Q- Who is the Present Comptroller and Auditor General of India?

a) TS Thakur

b) Shashi kant Sharma

c) Vinod Rai

d) Murali Manohar Joshi

 

Q- The Provision of  functions of CAG is given in which article?

a) Article 147

b) Article 149

c) Article 150

d) Article 153 

Comptroller and Auditor General of India

 

Article 148-

a) According to this Article-There shall be a Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAGI) appointed by the President and may be removed on Like Grounds and in the Like manner as a Judge of Supreme Court is removed.

b) The Comptroller and Auditor General of India removal is difficult and is removed by the method of Impeachment.

c) The Tenure is 6 years or till 65 years.

d) He or She may resign to the President.

e) After retirement of CAG , he shall not hold any post under the Govt.(s) ( Both the Government).

f) The Functions are :  To Audit all accounts of the Governments ( State and Union Government)  and their agencies and make reports .

g) The reports made by the CAG are submitted to Governor or The President.

h) Furthermore, the reports are put forward of legislatures for discuss and review purposes.

i)  

Reports given by the CAG are examined by the Oldest committee called  Public account Committee (PAC) and the committee can act accordingly.

 

Special points about CAG

  1. The CAG acts as the Watchdog of the Indian Public Finances.
  2. The CAG also acts as the Agent of the Parliament.
  3. The CAG is known as the Guardian of Government Money or Public Purse ( Public Money).
  4. There are four bodies who are considered as the Defensive wall of the Indian Democratic System – Supreme Court, Election Commission of India, Union Public Service Commision and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.

 

Special Functions of CAG-

 

  1. The provision of the functions of CAG is given in 
  2. He can check feasibilty of Financial Transactions.
  3. He acts as a Friend, Philosopher and Guide of PAC.
  4. The Present CAG is Shashikant Sharma who was appointed on 23rd May 2013.
  5. The CAG Audits accounts only when Requested by the President or Governor. 

Indian Polity Attorney General of India

Indian Polity Attorney General of India

Important Questions based on Indian Polity Attorney General of India

Q- The Provision of Financial Emergency is given in which article of Indian Constitution?

a) Article 340

b) Article 350

c) Article 360

d) Article 380

Q- Consider the following statements-

Statement I : A person Qualified to become the Judge of High Court is eligible to become AGI (Auditor and Comptroller General of India).

Statement II : A person Qualified to become the Judge of  Supreme Court is eligible to become AGI ( Auditor And Comptroller General of India).

a) Only Statement I is true

b) Only Statement II is true.

c) Both Statements are true.

d) None of the Statement is true.

e) None of these.

Q- The Attorney General of India is appointed by –

a) The Prime Minister

b) The President

c) The Chief Justice of India

d) None

Q- Who is the Current Attorney General of India?

a) Tirath Singh Thakur.

b) Shashikant Sharma

c) Mukul Rohtagi

d) Vinod Rai

“Financial Emergency”

Article 360 :

  1. If the president is satisfied that Financial Stability of India is under threat he shall impose Financial emergency by issuing a proclamation.
  2. Such a proclamation should be passed by both the houses by simple Majority within 2 months of its issue.
  3. This proclamation  shall remain in force until revoked by the president.

Effects of Financial Emergency-

  1. All the State Government can be directed to reduce their expenditure.
  2. All the Money bills and Financial Bills of the State can be reserved by the Governor for the Consideration of the president.
  3. Salaries and Incentives may be reduced including that of president.
  4. The Financial emergency has never been imposed so far in the Country.

 

Attorney General of India

  1. The post of the AGI is the part of Executive.
  2. A person Qualified to become Judge of Supreme Court can be appointed as Attorney General of India.
  3. The AGI is appointed by the President and no consultation is required in the appointment.
  4. Once appointment has taken place, then there is no fixed tenure and can continue until he resigns to the president.
  5. The AGI can be removed just by the President.
  6. As simple the appointment is as simple is the removal of the AGI.
  7. When the Government resigns Attorney General of India also resigns but not necessary, Still AGI resigns as per the Convention.
  8. Attorney General of India gives advice to president on legal Matters and performs all legal functions of Union Government i.e  represents union Govt. in courts.
  9. He is allowed to private legal practise but Shall not stand against union Government.
  10. He receives a fixed amount decided by the president as the salary.
  11. He can participate in all the proceedings of Parliament and its Committee’s ( If Nominated).But, he shall not vote on any proceedings.
  12. AGI is a  non-member  who can also attend but not vote.
  13. AGI is,assisted by the solicitor General of India and Additional Solicitor General of India.
  14. Current Attorney General of India is Mukul Rohtagi.

Indian Polity Types of Emergencies

Indian Polity Types of Emergencies

Important Questions based on Indian Polity Types of Emergencies

Emergency Provisions ( Article 352 -360)

There are three types of emergencies-

  1. National Emergency ( article 352)-

    1. If the president is Satisfied that there exists threat to security of India due to war, external aggression or armed rebellion, He Shall impose emergency on the whole or any part of India by issuing a proclaimation.
    2. Such a proclamation should be passed by both the Houses by Special majority within 1 month of its Issue.
    3. The period of Emergency is Six months.
    4. The Period can be Extended for any no. of times but always in the units of Six Months until revoked by the president.

          Effects of National Emergency-

  1. The State Governments become bound to follow executive direction of Union Government : Unitary  System.
  2. State legislation comes under legislation of parliament .
  3. In the time of Emergency, the State list becomes the concurrent list.
  4. Article 19 (Fundamental Rights) are automatically suspended at the time of Emergencies. (But not in case of Armed Rebellion).
  5. Article 20 and Article 21 are never suspended , not even in Emergencies.
  6. Other Articles may be suspended by the Order of President.
  7. The first Emergency was Declared on 20th oct, 1962 during Indo-China War.
  8. Second Emergency was Declared on 3rd December, 1971 during Indo-pak war.
  9. Third Emergency was Declared in June, 1975 ( It was Internal Emergency).
  10. The Emergency is declared by the president on the advice given by Prime minister in Written Form and Signed by the cabinet.

  

State Emergency  (President’s Rule)-

Article 356:

  1. It is declared when there is Failure of Constitutional machinery in a State.
  2. If the president is satisfied on the report of governor or otherwise that a State cannot be run as per the provisions of the Constitution, he shall assume the powers of the State by issuing a proclamation.
  3. Such a proclamation should be passed by both the houses by simple majority within two months of its issue.
  4. The period of emergency is of 6 months, it can be extended for next six months and the next  extension will be for two years (4*6 =24 months).
  5. In this, the Election commission certifies that elections cannot be held in the State Assembly.

Effects of State Emergency-

  1. State Govt. is dismissed and Rajya (State) is run in the name of president, Union Govt and Governor.
  2. The State Assembly is either dissolved or put under suspended Animation
  3. State law is made by the Parliament.
  4. The State list becomes the Union list.
  5. There are no effects on Fundamental rights.

 

Indian Polity Judiciary of India 2

Indian Polity “Judiciary of India”

Indian Polity Judiciary of India

High Court

 

 

  1. There Shall be a High Court for each state , Though every state of India does not comprise of High Court.
  2. Every High Court Shall comprise a Chief Justice and Such number of judges as the president may decide from time to time.
  3. Every Judge of High Court shall be appointed by the president on the recommendation of Chief justice of high Court, Governor, Chief Justice of India and two members from Collegium.
  4. The Retirement is at the Age of 62 years.

 

Qualification-

To become a Judge of High Court one should have following qualification-

  1. Citizen of India
  2. At least 10 years of Experience in any Judicial Office.
  3. At least 10 years of Experience as Advocate in High Court.

 

Removal of High Court-

  1. He or She may be removed on the like Grounds and Like manners as a Judge of Supreme court is removed.

 

Jurisdictions-

  1. High court also possess Original and Appellate Jurisdiction.
  2. The provision of Writ Jurisdiction is also there. The high Court can issue Writs in the cases of Violations of Fundamental Rights as well as legal rights. Hence, the writ jurisdiction of High Court is Wider than that of Supreme Court.

 

Miscellaneous points on High court and High Court Judge-

  1. Parliament can alter /extend/exclude the jurisdiction of High Court to and from a union territory.
  2. Parliament can establish common High Court for two or more states and Union Territories (UT).
  3. Parliament can establish separate High Court for a Union Territories (UT).
  4. There are 24 high courts in the country and 3 of them have Jurisdiction over two or more states.
  5. A Judge of high court may resign to the president.
  6. The oath of the office shall be administered by the  Governor.
  7. Salary and other incentives are decided by the parliament and charged upon consolidated fund of State, but pension shall be charged upon consolidated fund of India.
  8. A high court Judge can be transferred from 1 high court to another.
  9. A retired High court judge shall not act as advocate in any court except supreme court and other high court.

Public Interest Litigation (PIL)

  1. It was started in the year 1985 when the chief Justice of India is Justice Bhagwati.
  2. The PIL can be filed in High Court as well as  Supreme Court.
  3. The PIL can not be filed for personal matters.

Indian Polity Judiciary of India

Indian Polity -“Judiciary of India”

Important Concepts based on Indian Polity- “Judiciary of India”

“Judiciary”

  1. One of the unique features of the Indian constitution is that, notwithstanding the adoption of a federal system and existence of central acts and State Acts in their respective spheres.
  2. It has generally provided for a single integrated system of Courts to administer both union and state laws.
  3. At the apex of the entire Judicial System, exists the supreme court of India below which are the High courts in each state.
  4. The Judiciary is an integrated system, Furthermore the hierarchical level goes like –  Supreme court> High Court > District Court> Lok Adalats Panchayati Raj Institutions
  5. The Supreme court is the Highest Court and is “ Guardian of the Constitution”. Also it is the Interpreter of the Constitution.
  6. The constitution of India provides for a unified Judiciary System and there is no division of powers in Judiciary between Centre and State.
  7. On the other Hand Constitution of other countries like USA provides Double System of Courts.
  8. On 28th January, 1950 The Supreme Court Came into Existence and also the parliament is authorised to regulate courts.
  9. Currently there are 23 Sitting Judges with maximum strength of 31 Judges in the Supreme court including 1 chief justice of India.
  10. Initially there was a Chief Justice of India followed by 7 other judges.

 

Qualifications of Judges-

  1. He should be citizen of India.
  2. He Should have at least 5 years of experience  as a judge of High Court.
  3. Otherwise he should have 10 years of Experience as an Advocate in High Court.
  4. Except all these cases if a person is a distinguished Jurist i.e if he has exceptional  law knowledge.

 

Article 124(4) 

Removal of Supreme Court Judge

  1. A person is removed as a Supreme Court Judge on two grounds-
    1. If the person is proved with any kind of Misbehavior.
    2. If the person is having incapacity to act as a judge.
  2. Method of removal –
    1. The resolution of removal can be moved in either house and requires special majority for its passage.
    2. The final order is given by the president.

Jurisdictions

  1. Writ Jurisdiction ( article 32)- The provision of this jurisdiction is given in Fundamental rights ( Soul of Constitution).
  2. Original Jurisdiction- In this cases which are exclusively meant for supreme court
  3. Appellate Jurisdiction- This is the appeal given by Supreme Court on the Judgement of High Court.
  4. Advisory Jurisdiction- In this Supreme Court may give advice to Government on the Matters referred to it on a presidential reference.

 

Miscellaneous Points on Supreme Court Judge-

  1. The Senior most Judge of Supreme court is Appointed as the Chief Justice Of India (CJI).
  2. The Supreme Court Judge may resign to president.
  3. The Oath of the Office is administered by the President.
  4. Salary and other incentives are charged on Consolidated Fund of India (CFI) which is decided by the Parliament.
  5. A retired Judge of Supreme court shall not act as advocate in any court.

Indian Polity : Types of Bills ( Contd.)

 

Types of Bills ( Contd.)

Important Points from Types of Bills ( Contd.)

As discussed earlier there are Four types of bills – Ordinary Bill, Money Bill, Constitutional Amendment  Bill and financial Bill.

 

Indian Polity : Types of Bills ( Contd.)

  1. Ordinary Bills-

    1. A Bill which is not Money or constitutional Amendment Bill.
    2. It can be introduced in Either House.
    3. This bill requires simple majority for its passage.
    4. Rajya Sabha has all the powers on an ordinary bill. It can pass, amend or reject the bill.
    5. As according to article 108 the Joint Sitting is applied.
    6. After passing this bill is sent to President.

 

Note– The President gives his assent and then  bill becomes law or Act. President may return the bill also but this can be done once only. This process is known as Pocketing Veto.  

 

2.    Constitutional Amendment bill-

  1. The provision is given in the article 368.
  2. It can be introduced in either house.
  3. This bill can be passed by special Majority only.
  4. Rajya Sabha has all the Powers.
  5. President is bound to give his assent.
  6. There are some bills which requires the ratification  by at least the half of the states.
  7. This includes- Some provision of  SC/HC, representation of states in parliament, Distribution of Powers In Schedule  VII ( Three Lists).
  8. According to Article 368 : the constitution can be amended in 3 Ways –
  1. i) By Special majority of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
  2. ii) By Special majority of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha and majority of States.
  3. iii) By Simple Majority.

 

3. Financial Bill –

A bill which contains at least 1 matter of article 110, and at least 1 matter outside art 110 is called a financial bill.

 Matters of Article 110 (1)-

  1. Regulation of borrowing by the government.
  2.  Custody of the Consolidated Fund of India.
  3. Imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax.
  4. Payments into or withdrawals from these Funds;
  5. Appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India (CFI).
  6. Declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure.
  7. receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of India or the public account of India or the custody or issue of such money or the audit of the accounts of the Union or of a State.
  8. Any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in (1) to (7).

So, concluding, any Bill that relates to revenue or expenditure is a Financial Bill.

A Money Bill is a special kind of Financial Bill.

It is defined very precisely and deals only with matters mentioned Above. A money bill is assented by the Speaker of Lok Sabha.

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Indian Polity – Joint Sitting and Types Of Bills

Indian Polity – Joint Sitting and Types Of Bills

Important Points from Indian Polity – Joint Sitting and Types Of Bills

Powers and privileges of Member of Parliament (MP)-

  1. The MP has freedom of Speech and Expression in Parliament.
  2. MP is granted freedom from Arrest under civil Cases. This freedom is granted 40 days before the session, during  the session and 40 days after the session.
  3. There will be no arrest under criminal cases.
  4. He or she has freedom from Jury Service during the session
  5. The MP has right to regulate Proceedings of the house .
  6. He also has right to allow Publication and Broadcasting of the Proceedings of the house.
  7. He has Right to Allow Publication and Broadcasting of the proceedings  of the house.
  8. The MP has Right exclude Strangers from the House.
  9. He has Right to Punish Members and Strangers for violation of Privileges and Contemporary of House.

 

Joint Sitting

  1. It is called by the President
  2. It is called when there arises a deadlock over a bill between the houses.
  3. Such kind of bill is voted Jointly  and requires simple majority for its passage.( Simple majority means 1 vote more than 50%)
  4. The joint sitting is always presided by the Speaker of Lok Sabha or Deputy Speaker  or Deputy Chairman.
  5. The joint Sitting is rarely called. The past examples of joint sitting are-
    1. 1961- Dowry Bill
    2. 1978 – Banking commission
    3. 2002 – POTA  Act

Types of Bills-

There are Four types of bills – Ordinary Bill, Money Bill, Constitutional Amendment  Bill and financial Bill.

 Money Bill-

i) The provision of Money bill is given in article 110.

ii) This includes the six matters of money including the taxes and finance matters.

iii) Any bill related to this six matters is known as a money bill.

iv)Also a bill which contains 1 or more matters mentioned in article 110 is called a money bill.

v) it is certified so by speaker of lok sabha that whether it is a money bill or not.

vi) The Money bill can only be introduced in Lok Sabha and on recommendation of President of India.

vii) The Money bills requires Simple Majority for its passage.

viii) On a Money bill Rajya Sabha has no real powers . That means-Rajya Sabha cannot pass, amend or Reject a money bill.

ix) Atmost, Rajya Sabha can Suggest some changes in the bill to the Lok Sabha Separately. Such Suggestions are not binding on lok Sabha.

x) If the lok Sabha accepts the suggestions the Bill is not required to be sent to Rajya Sabha Again.

xi) If the Rajya Sabha does not gives any response to bill after its receiving up to 14 days, then it is automatically deemed ( Assumed) that it has been passed in Rajya Sabha.

xii)  After that the money bill is passed to the president for his consent. The president may give his assent to the bill or shall not return ( Pocketing Veto) or may withhold it ( Not possible).

 

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Powers of Lok Sabha

Powers of Lok Sabha

Important concepts from Powers of Lok Sabha

Special Powers of Lok Sabha –

  1. The “ No Confidence motion” can be introduced and passed only in Lok Sabha.
  2. This power of Lok Sabha is as per article 75 (clause 3).
  3. A Money Bill can be introduced only in Lok Sabha.
  4. In the case of Emergency, it can be revoked by the president on the recommendation of Lok Sabha Alone.

Common provisions of both houses –

  1. According to article 85 the president shall summon the houses in such a way that the gap between the last sitting of first session and first sitting of the next session shall not be more than 6 months.
  2. He shall prorogue the houses.
  3. He may dissolve the Lok sabha.

 

Sessions of lok Sabha-

Session I (Budget Session) –

  1. It is the longest Session ( From February to May).
  2. This session includes the address of the president to the cabinet.
  3. The Railway Budget is presented by Ministry of Railways which was separated by acworth committee in 1921. Now it has been merged with General Budget from financial year 2017-18.
  4. The Indian Railways is the largest employer of the World.
  5. The Economic Survey of India is presented before producing the General Budget.
  6. The General Budget is presented by the Finance Minister which is written by Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Economic Affairs.

Session II (Monsoon)-

  1. It occurs in the month of July- September.

Session III ( Winter) –

  1. This session takes place in the month of November- December.

Special Session-

  1. Sometimes on special occasion , special sessions also takes place.  
  2. In the year 1997 50 years of Independence was celebrated so a special session took place.

Special Hours of Session

  1. First Hour – It takes place from 11AM – 12PM and is known as Question Hour as it is Notice Based.
  2. Zero Hour – The Zero hour starts from 12 noon. In this session the members of session raises the Questions of Importance. This session cannot be delayed.
  3. The Lok Sabha is conducted daily.
  4. The Rajya Sabha is run Alternatively and it is proposed Daily.

Disqualification of Members of Parliament (MPs)

  1. A member is disqualified if He or She is Non-Citizen.
  2. One should not have any non registered office of Profit otherwise the member is disqualified.
  3. Also a member is disqualified in case Insolvency ( Liabilities > assets)
  4. If a person has or developed Unsound Mind.
  5. If the person is charged under any other Law.