Indian Polity Types of Emergencies

Indian Polity Types of Emergencies

Important Questions based on Indian Polity Types of Emergencies

Emergency Provisions ( Article 352 -360)

There are three types of emergencies-

  1. National Emergency ( article 352)-

    1. If the president is Satisfied that there exists threat to security of India due to war, external aggression or armed rebellion, He Shall impose emergency on the whole or any part of India by issuing a proclaimation.
    2. Such a proclamation should be passed by both the Houses by Special majority within 1 month of its Issue.
    3. The period of Emergency is Six months.
    4. The Period can be Extended for any no. of times but always in the units of Six Months until revoked by the president.

          Effects of National Emergency-

  1. The State Governments become bound to follow executive direction of Union Government : Unitary  System.
  2. State legislation comes under legislation of parliament .
  3. In the time of Emergency, the State list becomes the concurrent list.
  4. Article 19 (Fundamental Rights) are automatically suspended at the time of Emergencies. (But not in case of Armed Rebellion).
  5. Article 20 and Article 21 are never suspended , not even in Emergencies.
  6. Other Articles may be suspended by the Order of President.
  7. The first Emergency was Declared on 20th oct, 1962 during Indo-China War.
  8. Second Emergency was Declared on 3rd December, 1971 during Indo-pak war.
  9. Third Emergency was Declared in June, 1975 ( It was Internal Emergency).
  10. The Emergency is declared by the president on the advice given by Prime minister in Written Form and Signed by the cabinet.

  

State Emergency  (President’s Rule)-

Article 356:

  1. It is declared when there is Failure of Constitutional machinery in a State.
  2. If the president is satisfied on the report of governor or otherwise that a State cannot be run as per the provisions of the Constitution, he shall assume the powers of the State by issuing a proclamation.
  3. Such a proclamation should be passed by both the houses by simple majority within two months of its issue.
  4. The period of emergency is of 6 months, it can be extended for next six months and the next  extension will be for two years (4*6 =24 months).
  5. In this, the Election commission certifies that elections cannot be held in the State Assembly.

Effects of State Emergency-

  1. State Govt. is dismissed and Rajya (State) is run in the name of president, Union Govt and Governor.
  2. The State Assembly is either dissolved or put under suspended Animation
  3. State law is made by the Parliament.
  4. The State list becomes the Union list.
  5. There are no effects on Fundamental rights.

 

Indian Polity Judiciary of India 2

Indian Polity “Judiciary of India”

Indian Polity Judiciary of India

High Court

 

 

  1. There Shall be a High Court for each state , Though every state of India does not comprise of High Court.
  2. Every High Court Shall comprise a Chief Justice and Such number of judges as the president may decide from time to time.
  3. Every Judge of High Court shall be appointed by the president on the recommendation of Chief justice of high Court, Governor, Chief Justice of India and two members from Collegium.
  4. The Retirement is at the Age of 62 years.

 

Qualification-

To become a Judge of High Court one should have following qualification-

  1. Citizen of India
  2. At least 10 years of Experience in any Judicial Office.
  3. At least 10 years of Experience as Advocate in High Court.

 

Removal of High Court-

  1. He or She may be removed on the like Grounds and Like manners as a Judge of Supreme court is removed.

 

Jurisdictions-

  1. High court also possess Original and Appellate Jurisdiction.
  2. The provision of Writ Jurisdiction is also there. The high Court can issue Writs in the cases of Violations of Fundamental Rights as well as legal rights. Hence, the writ jurisdiction of High Court is Wider than that of Supreme Court.

 

Miscellaneous points on High court and High Court Judge-

  1. Parliament can alter /extend/exclude the jurisdiction of High Court to and from a union territory.
  2. Parliament can establish common High Court for two or more states and Union Territories (UT).
  3. Parliament can establish separate High Court for a Union Territories (UT).
  4. There are 24 high courts in the country and 3 of them have Jurisdiction over two or more states.
  5. A Judge of high court may resign to the president.
  6. The oath of the office shall be administered by the  Governor.
  7. Salary and other incentives are decided by the parliament and charged upon consolidated fund of State, but pension shall be charged upon consolidated fund of India.
  8. A high court Judge can be transferred from 1 high court to another.
  9. A retired High court judge shall not act as advocate in any court except supreme court and other high court.

Public Interest Litigation (PIL)

  1. It was started in the year 1985 when the chief Justice of India is Justice Bhagwati.
  2. The PIL can be filed in High Court as well as  Supreme Court.
  3. The PIL can not be filed for personal matters.

Indian Polity Judiciary of India

Indian Polity -“Judiciary of India”

Important Concepts based on Indian Polity- “Judiciary of India”

“Judiciary”

  1. One of the unique features of the Indian constitution is that, notwithstanding the adoption of a federal system and existence of central acts and State Acts in their respective spheres.
  2. It has generally provided for a single integrated system of Courts to administer both union and state laws.
  3. At the apex of the entire Judicial System, exists the supreme court of India below which are the High courts in each state.
  4. The Judiciary is an integrated system, Furthermore the hierarchical level goes like –  Supreme court> High Court > District Court> Lok Adalats Panchayati Raj Institutions
  5. The Supreme court is the Highest Court and is “ Guardian of the Constitution”. Also it is the Interpreter of the Constitution.
  6. The constitution of India provides for a unified Judiciary System and there is no division of powers in Judiciary between Centre and State.
  7. On the other Hand Constitution of other countries like USA provides Double System of Courts.
  8. On 28th January, 1950 The Supreme Court Came into Existence and also the parliament is authorised to regulate courts.
  9. Currently there are 23 Sitting Judges with maximum strength of 31 Judges in the Supreme court including 1 chief justice of India.
  10. Initially there was a Chief Justice of India followed by 7 other judges.

 

Qualifications of Judges-

  1. He should be citizen of India.
  2. He Should have at least 5 years of experience  as a judge of High Court.
  3. Otherwise he should have 10 years of Experience as an Advocate in High Court.
  4. Except all these cases if a person is a distinguished Jurist i.e if he has exceptional  law knowledge.

 

Article 124(4) 

Removal of Supreme Court Judge

  1. A person is removed as a Supreme Court Judge on two grounds-
    1. If the person is proved with any kind of Misbehavior.
    2. If the person is having incapacity to act as a judge.
  2. Method of removal –
    1. The resolution of removal can be moved in either house and requires special majority for its passage.
    2. The final order is given by the president.

Jurisdictions

  1. Writ Jurisdiction ( article 32)- The provision of this jurisdiction is given in Fundamental rights ( Soul of Constitution).
  2. Original Jurisdiction- In this cases which are exclusively meant for supreme court
  3. Appellate Jurisdiction- This is the appeal given by Supreme Court on the Judgement of High Court.
  4. Advisory Jurisdiction- In this Supreme Court may give advice to Government on the Matters referred to it on a presidential reference.

 

Miscellaneous Points on Supreme Court Judge-

  1. The Senior most Judge of Supreme court is Appointed as the Chief Justice Of India (CJI).
  2. The Supreme Court Judge may resign to president.
  3. The Oath of the Office is administered by the President.
  4. Salary and other incentives are charged on Consolidated Fund of India (CFI) which is decided by the Parliament.
  5. A retired Judge of Supreme court shall not act as advocate in any court.

Indian Polity : Types of Bills ( Contd.)

 

Types of Bills ( Contd.)

Important Points from Types of Bills ( Contd.)

As discussed earlier there are Four types of bills – Ordinary Bill, Money Bill, Constitutional Amendment  Bill and financial Bill.

 

Indian Polity : Types of Bills ( Contd.)

  1. Ordinary Bills-

    1. A Bill which is not Money or constitutional Amendment Bill.
    2. It can be introduced in Either House.
    3. This bill requires simple majority for its passage.
    4. Rajya Sabha has all the powers on an ordinary bill. It can pass, amend or reject the bill.
    5. As according to article 108 the Joint Sitting is applied.
    6. After passing this bill is sent to President.

 

Note– The President gives his assent and then  bill becomes law or Act. President may return the bill also but this can be done once only. This process is known as Pocketing Veto.  

 

2.    Constitutional Amendment bill-

  1. The provision is given in the article 368.
  2. It can be introduced in either house.
  3. This bill can be passed by special Majority only.
  4. Rajya Sabha has all the Powers.
  5. President is bound to give his assent.
  6. There are some bills which requires the ratification  by at least the half of the states.
  7. This includes- Some provision of  SC/HC, representation of states in parliament, Distribution of Powers In Schedule  VII ( Three Lists).
  8. According to Article 368 : the constitution can be amended in 3 Ways –
  1. i) By Special majority of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
  2. ii) By Special majority of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha and majority of States.
  3. iii) By Simple Majority.

 

3. Financial Bill –

A bill which contains at least 1 matter of article 110, and at least 1 matter outside art 110 is called a financial bill.

 Matters of Article 110 (1)-

  1. Regulation of borrowing by the government.
  2.  Custody of the Consolidated Fund of India.
  3. Imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax.
  4. Payments into or withdrawals from these Funds;
  5. Appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India (CFI).
  6. Declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure.
  7. receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of India or the public account of India or the custody or issue of such money or the audit of the accounts of the Union or of a State.
  8. Any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in (1) to (7).

So, concluding, any Bill that relates to revenue or expenditure is a Financial Bill.

A Money Bill is a special kind of Financial Bill.

It is defined very precisely and deals only with matters mentioned Above. A money bill is assented by the Speaker of Lok Sabha.

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Indian Polity – Joint Sitting and Types Of Bills

Indian Polity – Joint Sitting and Types Of Bills

Important Points from Indian Polity – Joint Sitting and Types Of Bills

Powers and privileges of Member of Parliament (MP)-

  1. The MP has freedom of Speech and Expression in Parliament.
  2. MP is granted freedom from Arrest under civil Cases. This freedom is granted 40 days before the session, during  the session and 40 days after the session.
  3. There will be no arrest under criminal cases.
  4. He or she has freedom from Jury Service during the session
  5. The MP has right to regulate Proceedings of the house .
  6. He also has right to allow Publication and Broadcasting of the Proceedings of the house.
  7. He has Right to Allow Publication and Broadcasting of the proceedings  of the house.
  8. The MP has Right exclude Strangers from the House.
  9. He has Right to Punish Members and Strangers for violation of Privileges and Contemporary of House.

 

Joint Sitting

  1. It is called by the President
  2. It is called when there arises a deadlock over a bill between the houses.
  3. Such kind of bill is voted Jointly  and requires simple majority for its passage.( Simple majority means 1 vote more than 50%)
  4. The joint sitting is always presided by the Speaker of Lok Sabha or Deputy Speaker  or Deputy Chairman.
  5. The joint Sitting is rarely called. The past examples of joint sitting are-
    1. 1961- Dowry Bill
    2. 1978 – Banking commission
    3. 2002 – POTA  Act

Types of Bills-

There are Four types of bills – Ordinary Bill, Money Bill, Constitutional Amendment  Bill and financial Bill.

 Money Bill-

i) The provision of Money bill is given in article 110.

ii) This includes the six matters of money including the taxes and finance matters.

iii) Any bill related to this six matters is known as a money bill.

iv)Also a bill which contains 1 or more matters mentioned in article 110 is called a money bill.

v) it is certified so by speaker of lok sabha that whether it is a money bill or not.

vi) The Money bill can only be introduced in Lok Sabha and on recommendation of President of India.

vii) The Money bills requires Simple Majority for its passage.

viii) On a Money bill Rajya Sabha has no real powers . That means-Rajya Sabha cannot pass, amend or Reject a money bill.

ix) Atmost, Rajya Sabha can Suggest some changes in the bill to the Lok Sabha Separately. Such Suggestions are not binding on lok Sabha.

x) If the lok Sabha accepts the suggestions the Bill is not required to be sent to Rajya Sabha Again.

xi) If the Rajya Sabha does not gives any response to bill after its receiving up to 14 days, then it is automatically deemed ( Assumed) that it has been passed in Rajya Sabha.

xii)  After that the money bill is passed to the president for his consent. The president may give his assent to the bill or shall not return ( Pocketing Veto) or may withhold it ( Not possible).

 

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Powers of Lok Sabha

Powers of Lok Sabha

Important concepts from Powers of Lok Sabha

Special Powers of Lok Sabha –

  1. The “ No Confidence motion” can be introduced and passed only in Lok Sabha.
  2. This power of Lok Sabha is as per article 75 (clause 3).
  3. A Money Bill can be introduced only in Lok Sabha.
  4. In the case of Emergency, it can be revoked by the president on the recommendation of Lok Sabha Alone.

Common provisions of both houses –

  1. According to article 85 the president shall summon the houses in such a way that the gap between the last sitting of first session and first sitting of the next session shall not be more than 6 months.
  2. He shall prorogue the houses.
  3. He may dissolve the Lok sabha.

 

Sessions of lok Sabha-

Session I (Budget Session) –

  1. It is the longest Session ( From February to May).
  2. This session includes the address of the president to the cabinet.
  3. The Railway Budget is presented by Ministry of Railways which was separated by acworth committee in 1921. Now it has been merged with General Budget from financial year 2017-18.
  4. The Indian Railways is the largest employer of the World.
  5. The Economic Survey of India is presented before producing the General Budget.
  6. The General Budget is presented by the Finance Minister which is written by Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Economic Affairs.

Session II (Monsoon)-

  1. It occurs in the month of July- September.

Session III ( Winter) –

  1. This session takes place in the month of November- December.

Special Session-

  1. Sometimes on special occasion , special sessions also takes place.  
  2. In the year 1997 50 years of Independence was celebrated so a special session took place.

Special Hours of Session

  1. First Hour – It takes place from 11AM – 12PM and is known as Question Hour as it is Notice Based.
  2. Zero Hour – The Zero hour starts from 12 noon. In this session the members of session raises the Questions of Importance. This session cannot be delayed.
  3. The Lok Sabha is conducted daily.
  4. The Rajya Sabha is run Alternatively and it is proposed Daily.

Disqualification of Members of Parliament (MPs)

  1. A member is disqualified if He or She is Non-Citizen.
  2. One should not have any non registered office of Profit otherwise the member is disqualified.
  3. Also a member is disqualified in case Insolvency ( Liabilities > assets)
  4. If a person has or developed Unsound Mind.
  5. If the person is charged under any other Law.

Indus Valley civilisation I

Indus Valley Civilisation

Important points about Indus Valley Civilisation

Indus Valley civilization

  1. The civilization is also known as Harappa civilization. The name is given as Indus valley civilisation as it flourished along the Indus river.
  2. IVC is one of the oldest civilisations of the world and the worldwide accepted time period is from 2500 BC to 1700 BC. ( Note : BC refers to “Before Christ” )
  3. IVC was discovered by Dayaram Sahni  in 1921.
  4. The name Harappan civilisation was given by the John marshall of East India Company  who was the then director general of Archaeological Survey of India.
  5. Indus valley civilization belonged to Bronze Age or Chalcolithic Age.. Time wise it can be said that IVC was in Neolithic Age.

 

Sites of Indus valley civilisation:

 

  1. In 1921 the Civilisation was excavated by Dayaram Sahni on the banks of Ravi.
  2. In 1922  Rakhali das Banerjee (RD Banerjee) found Mohen-jo-daro.  Mohen-jo-daro means mound of death. The city was famous for its Great Bath.
  3. In 1953  Kalibangan was excavated on the banks of saraswati.
  4. In 1957 lothal  was found on the Gulf of Kambay. A dockyard was found here. Hence, lothal was considered important port city of Indus valley civilisation.
  5. In 1991/1992 Dholavira was found in Kutch.
  6. A great number of sites were found in the state of gujarat.

 

Geographical Location of Indus valley civilisation:

  1. The civilisation spreaded to major part of North Western India, Afghanistan, Baluchistan and Sind.
  2. In India it spreaded in the parts of West Punjab, Gujarat, Uttar pradesh, Haryana, rajasthan, jammu and kashmir and  Maharashtra.

 

Features of Indus Valley Civilisation:

 

  • Town Planning : The Town planning was a unique feature of Indus Valley Civilisation which differentiated it from rest of the civilisations.

 

    1. It was not uniform. The town was divided into two parts such that in the Western part there were Forts which were higher known as Citadel. The Eastern part was comparatively lower town.
    2. Dholavira was an Exception city of IVC in town Planning.  As it had three divisions and consisted a middle part also.

 

  • Grid Pattern :  The IVC had grid pattern or Blocks also known as Chessboard Pattern.

 

  1. The Roads cut each other at  90 degrees of angle.
  2. The Houses were made of Mud Bricks and Burnt Bricks.
  3. The Indus Valley Civilisation had a well defined Drainage System.

Indian Polity : The Speaker

Indian Polity : The Speaker

The Post is dedicated to Provide important  concepts for the topic Indian Polity : The Speaker

Speaker

a) He is the head of the house and also represents the house.

b) He is considered as the guardian of the Powers of members and also the privileges of the members.

c) He is the person who certifies a bill to be a Money bill.

d) The Money bill is exclusively presented and passed by the lok sabha. The Money bill is powered by the speaker of lok  sabha.

e) The speaker is the head of the lok sabha secretariat.

f) As per the convention – The speaker has to resign from the membership of his political party.

g) Also the speaker loses its right to vote on any matter in the house in the first “instance”.

h) The Speaker posses the power of “Casting Vote”. The Casting Vote refers to a vote which breaks the equality of votes. Whenever such a condition arises that there is a equality of votes then speaker can vote on such matter. Such a a type of vote is called Casting vote.

i) All the presiding officers of parliament have only casting vote.

j) There is no Oath for the post of speaker. The speaker resigns to deputy speaker and Deputy Speaker resigns to Speaker.

k) The speaker continues in his position until before the beginning of new Lok Sabha.

l) If the Speaker is member of any parliamentary committee, then he becomes automatically its chairman.

 

Sl No.

Name of speaker

TENURE

Political Party

From

To

Duration

Lok Sabha

1 Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar 15 May 1952 27 Feb 1956 3 years, 288 days 1st Indian National Congress ( INC)
2 M A Ayyengar 8 March 1956 10 May 1957 1 year, 63 days
11 May 1957 16 April 1962 4 years, 340 days 2nd
3 Sardaar Hukam Singh 17 April 1962 16 March 1967 4 years, 333 days 3rd
4 Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy 17 March 1967 19 July 1969 2 years, 124 days 4th
5 Gurdiyal Singh Dhillon  8 August 1969 19 March 1971 1 year, 221 days
22 March 1971 1 December 1975 4 years, 254 days 5th
6 Baali Ram Bhagat 15 January 1976 25 March 1977 1 year, 69 days
(4) Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy 26 March 1977 13 July 1977 109 days 6th Janata Party ( JP)
7 K. S Hegde 21 July 1977 21 January 1980 2 years, 184 days
8 Balraam Jhaakkar 22 January 1980 27 oct 1984 3 years, 358 days 7th Indian National Congress ( INC)
16 January 1985 18 December 1989 4 years, 336 days 8th
9 Raabi rai 19 December 1989 9 July 1991 1 year, 202 days 9th Janata Dal (JD) 
10 Shivraaj Patil 10 July 1991 22 May 1996 4 years, 317 days 10th Indian National Congress (INC)
11 P A Sangama 23 May 1996 23 March 1998 1 year, 304 days 11th
12 G M Baalyogi 24 March 1998 19 October 1999 1 year, 209 days 12th Telugu Desam Party
22 October 1999 3 March 2002 2 years, 132 days 13th
13 Manohar Joshi 10th  May 2002 2nd June 2004 2 years, 23 days Shiv Sena
14 Somnath Chatterjee 4th June 2004 31st May 2009 4 years, 361 days 14th Communist Party of India ( Marxist) (CPI M)
15 Meera Kumari 4 June 2009 4 June 2014 5 years, 0 days 15th Indian National Congress (INC)
16 Sumitra Mahajan 5 June 2014 till Date 2 years, 231 days 16th  Bhartiya Janta Party ( BJP)

 

Indian Polity : LOK SABHA

Indian Polity : LOK SABHA

Indian Polity : LOK SABHA

Lok Sabha ( House of People)

Composition:

  1. Not More than 530 members.
  2. These members are elected directly from Union Territories.
  3. There are two Anglo-Indian Members who are nominated by President.
  4. The System of Directly election by the people is known as First Part the Port System.
  5. 530+13+2 = 545 Total no. seats  
  6. Total Vacancy available is 552 but Strength sanctioned is not more than 545.
  7. It will be revised after 10 years.
  8. In 1952, it was constituted and was revised in 1961. The Second Revision took place in 1971.
  9. The Second revision was frozen by 42nd/1976  for 25 years.
  10. By the 84th/ 2001 extended till 2026.
  11. The 1971 census is used in the election of President.
  12. Lok Sabha is the Lower house of parliament is known as House of People.

 

Tenure –

a) The tenure is of 5 years.

b) Before 5 years the lok sabha can be dissolved by the president. This Process is known as Dissolution.

c) However, it can go beyond 5 years in case of emergency.

d) Parliament can extend tenure but only one year at a time. This can be done any no. of times till emergency is revoked. 

 

Qualification-

 The Qualification of a member of lok sabha is as follows-

a) He should be citizen of India.

b) He should posses at least 25 years of Age.

c) There should be no office of profit.

d) Also there should be a registered profit.

 

Officers of Lok Sabha-

Protem speaker-

a)  There shall be a Protem speaker- appointed by the President. The Protem Speaker is the temporary speaker.

b) The oath as a member of  speaker is administered by he President.

c) The oath to other members is administered by the Pro-tem Speaker.

d) The Date of election of speaker is decided by the president.

 

Speaker and Deputy Speaker

a) Members choose two members among them – one as speaker and other as Deputy speaker.

b) The Speaker and Deputy speakers may be removed by the members by effective majority after a Fourteen day Notice.

c) The First speaker of India was GV Mavlankar. He had been the longest speaker of India from 15 August, 1947.

d) Balram Jakkar had been the longest speaker from the beginning of Indian Constitution( 1950).

 

 

 

 

 

Chronology of Indian History : Part II

Chronology of Indian History: Part II

Chronology of Indian History : Part II

Chronology of Medieval Indian History

Period Events
750 -1000 AD Three Party Struggle –

  1. Gurjara Pratihara- Dynasty of Western India.
  2. Pal dynasty – The Dynasty of Bengal.
  3. The Rashtrakutas of Deccan.

These three party fought for kannauj.

Kannauj was Important political and Economic capital and centre of  North India.

900 AD-1100 AD These era was of Rajput Dynasty.
1001 – 1030 AD Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni. (Capital)
1175- 1206 AD Mohammed  Ghori
1191/92 Battle of Tarain- there were two battles of tarain  and in the second battle the Prithvi Raj Chauhan was defeated.
1206 – 1526 AD The Qutub -ud -din Aibak was the Governor of Mohammed Ghori.
1526 AD The First Battle of Panipat.
1526 AD – 1707 AD The Mughal Empire ( The Capital of Empire was Agra )
Some Foreign Travellers
1498 AD – 1757 AD Vasco- de – Gama (Portuguese Traveller)

The Period of European companies from Vasco- de gama to Battle of Plassey.

Chronology of Modern India-

Period Events
1757 AD Battle of plassey – took place on June 23rd, 1757 at plassey in Bengal. British Empire won the battle.
1757 AD – 1857 AD Rule of East India Company- The Company developed Headquarters at calcutta.

Calcutta was the then Capital of India.

1857 AD  The revolt of 1857 took place. Till 1857  Governor General ruled the country.It was the first Indian rebellion against the British East India Company. The battle took place from  10th may, 1857 to 8 July, 1859 .
1858 AD The Government of India Act,
1858 AD – 1947 AD Direct Rule of Crown
1885 AD Indian national congress- It was founded by Allan Octavian Hume ( AO HUME) . The First Indian president was Womesh Chandra Bannerjee ( W C Bannerjee)
1885 AD- 1947 AD Freedom Struggle
Some Important Movements
1905 AD 1908 AD Anti- Partition Movement- Partition of Bengal
1916 AD – 1917 AD Home rule Movement
1921 AD – 22 AD Non Cooperation movement
1930 AD – 1934 AD Civil Disobedience Movement
1942 AD Quit India Movement
1946 AD Cabinet Mission
1947 AD Mountbatten plan- Indian Independence Act ( Crown Rule will end)
1757 AD Battle of plassey
1757 AD – 1857 AD Rule of East India Company- The Company developed Headquarters at calcutta.

Calcutta was the then Capital of India.

1857 AD  The revolt of 1857 took place. Till 1857  Governor General ruled the country.
1858 AD The Government of India Act,
1858 AD – 1947 AD Direct Rule of Crown
1885 AD Indian national congress
1885 AD- 1947 AD Freedom Struggle
Some Important Movements
1905 AD 1908 AD Anti- Partition Movement- Partition of Bengal
1916 AD – 1917 AD Home rule Movement
1921 AD – 22 AD Non Cooperation movement
1930 AD – 1934 AD Civil Disobedience Movement
1942 AD Quit India Movement
1946 AD Cabinet Mission
1947 AD Mountbatten plan- Indian Independence Act ( Crown Rule will end)