Pronoun – for noun

Pronoun are the words that are used in place of noun.

Garima is my friend. Garima lives in delhi. Garima is beautiful.

Garima is my friend. She lives in delhi. She is beautiful.

So we can say that to avoid the repetition of noun in a sentence,pronoun is used.


                       Types of pronouns

1.Personal pronouns

These pronoun denote three persons of the english language.

I, me, we, us, you, he, him, she, her, it, they, them


English language consider three types of persons.

1st person– The one who is speaking

2nd person-The one who is listening

3rd person-About whom the 1st and 2nd person are talking


Rule no.1

If singular form of all the above mentioned three persons come in a single sentence, the order of the persons should be-

                                  2nd person>3rd person>1st person

You,  he and I shall go to market in the evening.

You and she have made a beautiful drawing.

She and I shall do this work.


Rule no.2

If singular form of all the three persons or two out of three persons come in a single sentence and some mistake is committed by all the three persons together then, the order of the persons should be-

                                   1st person>2nd person>3rd person

I, you and she have committed a crime.

You and he have done this disobedience.


Rule no.3

If plural form of the three person come in a single sentence then the order of the three person should be-

                                  1st person>2nd person>3rd person

We, you and they will go to market in the evening.


Subjective and objective form of personal pronouns-




                      I                          me
                     We                          us
                    You                          you
           She, He, It                  Her, him, it
                They                       Them


Rule no.4

Whenever there is a comparison between two people then always a subject is compared with a subject and an object is compared with an object.

She is as beautiful as I.

He is more intelligent than I.

I know you as much as her.


Rule no.5

The following words are always followed by an objective case-

Let, like, between……..and, except, but, and all prepositions.

Let me go there.

There is nothing between him and me.

Everyone was going to school except her.

Everybody but her was present for the cooking class.

I do not depend on him ( preposition )


2.Possessive pronouns

These are the pronouns that show possession.


Possessive adjective                             Possessive pronoun

        My                                                           Mine

       Our                                                           Ours

      Your                                                          Yours

      Their                                                         Theirs

       His                                                             His

       Her                                                            Hers


Rule no.1

Possessive adjective is used with nouns. We can not use possessive pronoun with nouns.


Yours book was of blue colour which i lost during vacations.(possessive pronoun) (wrong)

Your book was of blue colour which i lost during vacations.(possessive adjective) (correct)


Rule no.2

Possessive pronoun can be used as the subject and object of the sentence.


Hers is a beautiful garden. (subject)

Theirs is a new laptop. (subject)

This car is mine. (object)

She has lost my kit as well as yours. (object)


Rule no.3

Apostrophe is not used with possessive pronoun.

Yours faithfully


Rule no.4

We can use possessive pronoun as the object of the preposition.

Your car is better than hers.


Rule no.5

Always use possessive adjective with Gerunds(verb(1st form)+ing).

He was very happy about his getting engaged.

She was not sure of their teaching classes.


Rule no.6

With the following words ,possessive pronoun can’t be used-

Separation, excuse, pardon, leave, favour, mention, sight, report


3.Reflexive pronouns

A pronoun is referred as reflexive pronoun when the subject and the object of the sentence are the same person or you can say that when the subject of the sentence is performing the action on himself.

Myself, yourself, ourselves, themselves, yourselves, herself, himself, itself, oneself

She have hurt herself.

I cut myself.

The poor woman poisoned herself and her children.

Reflexive pronouns are always used after the verb.


Rule no.1

With the following words we use reflexive pronoun only when these words are used as verbs and they don’t have an object with them-

acquit, avail, reconcile, amuse, resign, avenge, exert, apply, adapt, adjust, pride, absent and enjoy

He resigned himself to the buddhism.

She absented herself from the class.

She acquitted herself well during the strike.


Rule no.2

We do not use reflexive pronouns with the following words-

Keep, stop, turn, qualify, move, bathe, rest and hide


Rule no.3

We can not use reflexive pronoun as the subject and object of the sentence.

Myself Rohan from Delhi.(wrong) (I am Rohan from delhi.)

He is not giving the red book to myself.(wrong) (he is not giving the red book to me).


4.Emphatic pronouns

These are the pronouns which are used to put emphasis on the subject of the sentence.

Myself, yourself, ourselves, themselves, yourselves, herself, himself, itself, oneself


You yourself will go to the market and bring some fruits for her.

She herself will bring those notebooks.

These pronouns are always used before the verb.


5.Demonstrative pronoun

These are the pronouns that are used to point at person/things.

This, that, these, those, such, the same


This- for nearby singular person or thing.

This is my friend Garima.

This is my book.


That- for far off singular person or thing.

That is my car.

That is my friend.


These- for nearby plural persons or things.

These are my friends.

These are my notebooks.

Those- for far off plural persons or things.

Those were my notebooks.

Those were my friends.


6.Relative pronouns

Relative pronouns basically behave as a conjunction as they connect a noun or pronoun to the clause or phrase.

Who, whom, that, which


Who Is always used for persons (as a subject)
Whom Is always used for persons (as an object)
Which Is always used for non-living and animals


This is the animal which gives us milk.

The T.V. which you bought yesterday is not working well.


Examples For whom and who :-


  1. he is the man who you say loves everyone a lot . 


        Subject no.1          – he

        Helping verb no.1 – is

        Subject no.2         – who

        Helping verb no.2 – loves

        Subject no.3         – you

        Helping verb no.3 – say   


  1. She is a beautiful woman who you say everybody admires a lot .- Wrong

           She is a beautiful woman Whom you say everybody admires a lot.- Correct


        Subject no.1          – she

        Helping verb no.1 – is

        Subject no.2         – you

        Helping verb no.2 – say

        Subject no.3         – everybody

        Helping verb no.3 – admires  


  1. Everybody greets Vishal who she treats a terrorist – Wrong

   Everybody greets Vishal whom she treats a terrorist – Correct


        Subject no.1          – Everybody

        Helping verb no.1 – greets

        Subject no.2         – she

        Helping verb no.2 – treats


  1. You can defeat Ashish whom has defeated everyone – Wrong

   You can defeat Ashish who has defeated everyone – Correct


       Subject no.1          – You

        Helping verb no.1 – can

        Subject no.2         – who

        Helping verb no.2 – has


  1. Raman is your very good friend whom everyone can trust.- Correct


        Subject no.1          – Raman

        Helping verb no.1 – is

        Subject no.2         – everyone

        Helping verb no.2 – can


Use of ‘that’


Rule no.1

We should always use ‘that’ with superlative degree.


Positive degree                     Comparative degree                Superlative degree

        Tall                                          Taller                                            Tallest

      Good                                         Better                                            Best

     Beautiful                                More beautiful                             Most   beautiful

        Dry                                         Drier                                              Driest

   Powerful                                 More powerful                              Most powerful


She is the most beautiful girl that i have ever seen.


.Rule no.2

All + uncountable noun is always followed by ‘that’.

All the crockery that i gave her was very precious


All +non living things is always followed by ‘that’.

All that glitters not gold.


Rule no.3

There are certain words with which ‘that’ is used-

Everything, nothing, the only, any, everyone, none, no, nobody, much, little

This is the only thing that she gifted her.

The little money that i have, was spent on shopping.

I have nothing that i needed.


7.Distributive pronouns

These pronouns denote person or things of a group individually and do not consider them as collectively.

Each, either, neither, none, any, one


Each – is always used for two or more than two.

Either- are always used for only two.

Neither – are always used for only two.

One – are always used for more than two

None – are always used for more than two


Rule no.1

When the above mentioned words are used with nouns then they are considered as adjectives but when these words come with some other words than noun then they behave as distributive pronouns.


When the sentence starts with each of/ either of/ neither of/ none of/ one of then the initial noun and pronoun should be in plural form but in the remaining sentence singular verb, singular pronoun and singular adjective will be used.


One of my sisters are good at mathematics.(Wrong).

One of my sisters is good at mathematics.(Correct).


One of my students  deserve the first Prize in Science Olympiad.(Wrong).

One of my students  deserves the first Prize in Science Olympiad. (Correct).


Either of the players are going to do the bowling. (Wrong).

Either of the players is going to do the bowling.(Correct).


Neither of the two girls have gone for shopping.(wrong)

Neither of the two girls has gone for shopping.(correct)


None of them knew how to do the dressing themselves.(wrong)

None of them knew how to do the dressing himself.(correct)

Each of the girls should go out and bring their notes.(wrong)

Each of the girls should go out and bring her notes.(correct)


Rule no.2

In the above sentence each is working as the subject of the sentence. If each comes after the subject of the sentence then the verb of the sentence will be according to the subject.


We each have told him to stop criticizing her.

Subject of the sentence-We

Here have is used for we.


8.Reciprocal pronouns

These pronouns show mutual relationship between the nouns.

Each other- to show the mutual relationship between two people or two things

One another-to show mutual relationship between many people or many things


Ram and Sita are living with each other.

The two brothers laughed at each other.

People on diwali exchange sweets with one another.


9.Indefinite pronouns

These are general words used for nouns .

Anyone, no  one, someone, everyone– always use singular verb and masculine gender singular

                                                              pronoun and  singular adjective with these                                                                                                                       

Anybody, nobody, somebody, everybody– always use singular verb and masculine gender singular

                                                              pronoun and  singular adjective with these       

Everything, nothing anything, something-always use singular verb and it, its, itself for these


Everyone should take his roll no. with him while going to the examination hall.,

Everything should be kept in its order.



Both is used for two people or two things.


Both of the girls are going out for shopping.


We can not use both in negative sentences.

Both of them are not going out for shopping.(wrong)

Neither of them is going out for shopping. (correct)



If a sentence comes in the following form-


One of the+noun/pronoun(plural)+relative pronoun(who/that)

Then the verb should be used according to the noun/pronoun.

She is one of the people who have fought for their membership.


It is I who is to blame.(wrong)

It is I who am to blame.(correct)




One-subject of the sentence


Ones-plural form

One’s-possessive form

Oneself- pronoun


One should do one’s duty oneself.

These ones are my notebooks.



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                                      NOUN FOR SSC EXAM

NOUN FOR SSC EXAM-A noun is the name of of a person, place, thing ,quality, condition and action.

Ram lives in Delhi.

I live in hyderabad.


Types of noun

Proper noun

This noun denotes the name of a proper person,place or thing.

Jaipur , chandigarh (proper place)

Garima , neha (proper person)


Common noun

This noun denotes common persons and places or you can say that it includes name given to person or things of specific class or type.

Boy , girl (common person)

Village , city (common place)

Phone , book (common thing)


Collective noun

This noun denotes collection of people or collection of things.

Jury , team , committee etc.

We use singular verb with collective noun.

But if we consider collective noun in terms of members or the members of collective noun are being talked about then we use plural verb with them.


The committee has given its decision.

The jury agreed that its verdict is not guilty.

The cricket team practices near the old fort.


The team are taking bath in their bathrooms.

The audience are taking their seats.

In the above sentences we are talking about members.


Material noun

All the materials are included in this noun.

Tea, plastic, water, gold, oil etc.


Abstract noun

This noun denotes quality, condition feelings and ideas of a person.’

Honesty , childhood , anger , pity etc.


Nouns are also classified as-

Countable noun

These are the nouns which can be counted .

Eg.- shreya, rupees, boy etc.

As we can count so we can classify them as singular and plural.

Singular verb is used with singular countable nouns.

Plural verb is used with plural countable nouns.

A girl is going.

Girls are going.

Uncountable noun

These are the nouns which we can not count.

Singular verb is used with uncountable nouns.

Eg. – milk,knowledge, oil etc


There are certain nouns which can only be used in singular form as they are uncountable in nature-

Luggage, baggage, knowledge, postage, wastage, pottery, poetry, scenery, bakery, confectionary, jewellery, equipment, evidence, information, fuel, cost, dirt, dust, hair, percentage, behaviour etc.


We can not make the above mentioned words in plural form by adding ‘s’ with them.

Article a/an cant be used with them.

Much is used with uncountable nouns.

Your hair is beautiful.

She has vast knowledge about buddhism.

The scenery of shimla is very charming.

Harivansh rai bachchan is famous for his poetry.


Plural verbs can be used with uncountable nouns by adding certain words before them.

All pieces of information given by him were fake.

(you should notice that here the verb ‘were’ is used for pieces and not for information).

Some packets of bread were given to the orphan.

(Here were is used for packets).


                               Noun and Case

We consider four types of case in nouns-

1.Nominative / subjective case

In this case noun is used as the subject of the sentence.

Shyam lives in village.

Delhi is my favourite place.

2. Accusative / objective case

In this case noun is used as the object of the sentence.

I live in delhi.

I have given my notebook to garima.

3. Dative case

In this case noun is being addressed in the sentence.

Ram, read carefully.

Sita, walk slowly.

4.Possessive case

In this case Possession of noun is shown in the sentence. Apostrophe is used to show the   possessions of noun.

Rahul’ s notebook

Riya’ s book


We can not use apostrophe with non living things.


The teapot’s handle is golden in colour.(wrong)

The handle of the teapot is golden in colour.(correct)


Keyboard’s keys are not working well.(wrong)

The keys of the keyboard are not working well.(correct)


But while personifying non living things, apostrophe is used-

Death’s hand

Spring’s charm


In order to show the possession of Plural noun ending with ‘s’. We do not repeat ‘s’ while using apostrophe with them-

Cows’ horn

Girls’ college

Women’s college (here the plural form does not contain ‘s’ in it.)


While pronouncing a noun, if it ends in hissing sound then we do not use ‘s’ while using apostrophe with them-

Peace’ sake

Conscience’ sake

Ganesh’ idol

If the possession of two nouns is same then apostrophe is only used with the latter noun-

Sehrawat and sons’ (shop)

Choudhary and grandsons’ (shop)

Ram and shyam’s brother is very naughty.


If the possession of two nouns is different then we use apostrophe with both the nouns-

Dinkar’s and Nirala’s poem

Ram’s and Shyam’s fathers are good friends.  


Do not use double apostrophe adjacently

My mother’s cousin’s brother is working in IT sector.(wrong)

The brother of my mother’s cousin is working in IT sector.(correct)


My sister’s husband’s mother is not well.(wrong)

The mother of my sister’s husband is not well.(correct)


                                          Noun and gender

Gender of nouns is divided into four parts-

1.Masculine gender

It represents male sex


There are certain nouns which are used to show strength,energy, power and firmness. Such nouns are considered as masculine in gender. So pronouns representing male gender(he, him, his, himself) are used with them.

Sun,time,death,winter, wind, thunder,ocean,war

The sun glared at me with his cruel eyes.

Death with his bare hands was waiting for her.

Thunder is making his way through the town.

(in the above sentences we are personifying-thunder and death)


We always use masculine gender pronouns with the following words-


Everyone, anyone, no one, someone,everybody, nobody, somebody, anybody(indefinite pronoun)

Everyone should perform his duties well.

Someone is going outside with his blue bicycle.


2.Feminine gender

It represents female sex.


There are certain nouns which are used to show beauty, gracefulness,and gentleness. Such nouns are considered as feminine in gender. So pronouns representing female gender are used for them.


nature ,jealousy,the moon,river,the earth,nation,hope,humanity,peace,fame,justice

The moon is dancing in the sky with her bright light.

Nature has shown her cruelty on the people of bhuj.

France is proud of her architects.

(in the above sentences we are personifying -nature and the moon)


Note -when geographical conditions of a country are being discussed then we use ‘it’ for the country.

India and its neighbours


3.Common gender

It represents both male and female sex.

Thief,neighbour,servant,teacher,doctor,student etc.


The  gender of the above nouns is not clear.

As we live in male dominating society so when the gender of the nouns is not clear ,we always use masculine gender for them.

The doctor and his patient are talking loudly.

The teacher is teaching with a red pen in his hand.



We do not know the gender of the above nouns.

So we use it,itself, and its for them.

The baby has broken its left arm.

The child who is playing has blue bottle in his hands.


But if their gender is mentioned initially then we can use he/she for them according to the gender.

The child who won the competition last night was a boy. He was very active.

The baby was a  girl.She was very beautiful.


4.Neutral gender

It neither represents males nor females.

It represents non living things.



                                              Rules of nouns

  1. If a noun is followed by a preposition and then the same noun is repeated , singular form of the noun will be used.

He is becoming weak day by day.

Car after car is arriving.

Door to door service will be provided for polio drops.


  1. 2. If a definite numeral adjective(one,two,three….) is followed by the following nouns then the nouns should be used in singular form.

Pair, score, hundred, thousand, dozen,million,billion,stone,gross etc.

I have given him two thousand rupees.

I bought four dozen oranges.

I donated six thousand rupees in charity.


But if the above mentioned nouns are followed by ‘of’ then the nouns will be used in plural form.

Thousands of people go for hajj every year.

Millions of rupees got wasted on this project.

She donated thousands of rupees.


  1. Certain nouns exist in plural form only. We can not make them singular by removing their ‘s’. So plural verb is used with them. Such nouns are-

Pants,pajamas,trousers,shorts,knickers,scissors,tongs,sunglasses,binoculars,spectacles,goggles,Surroundings,outskirts,alms,wages,proceeds,remains,congratulations,regards,thanks,savings,Fireworks,amends,braces,tactics,troops,valuables,belongings etc.

Where are my trousers?

I need a bit time to admire my surroundings.

He was born in noida,on the outskirts of delhi,in 2002.


4.some nouns exist in plural form(ends with ‘s’) but they are singular in meaning so we use singular verb with them. Such nouns are-


Physics is a tough subject.

Billiards is my favourite game.

No news is a good news.


5.some nouns exist in singular form(do not end with ‘s’) but are plural in meaning . so plural verbs are used with them. Such nouns are-

Cavalry,gentry,clergy,infantry,poultry,peasantry,cattle,children etc.

The peasantry of this village have their own farms.

The gentry of this colony generally have their get togethers at community centre.

Cattle are grazing in the farm.


  1. There are certain nouns that exist in a single form in both singular and plural forms. Such nouns are-

Fish,sheep,series,deer,aircraft,counsel etc.

One fish is there in the pond.

There are many fish in the pond.


Some singular and plural forms of nouns are given below.


Singular                                    Plural

Phenomenon                           Phenomena

Criterion                                   Criteria


Singular                                    Plural

Analysis                                    Analyses

Crisis                                        Crises

Hypothesis                               Hypotheses

Basis                                        Bases

Thesis                                      Theses

Parenthesis                              Parentheses


Singular                                    Plural

Spoonful                                    Spoonfuls

Mouthful                                    Mouthfuls

Glassful                                     Glassfuls

Handful                                     Handfuls

Cupful                                       Cupfuls


Singular                                    Plural

Commander-in-chief                 Commanders-in-chief

Son-in-law                                 Sons-in-law

Sister-in-law                              Sisters-in-law

Mother-in-law                            Mothers-in-law

Step-father                                Step-fathers

Step-brother                              Step-brothers

Maid-servant                             Maid-servants

Major-general                            Major-generals


Singular                                    Plural

Woman                                     Women

Foot                                           Feet

Singular                                    Plural

Dormouse                                 Dormice

Louse                                        Lice

Man                                           Men

Mouse                                       Mice

Tooth                                         Teeth

Goose                                       Geese

Oasis                                        Oases


Singular                                    Plural

Child                                         Children

Ox                                             Oxen


Singular                                    Plural

Datum                                      Data

Ovum                                       Ova

Dictum                                     Dicta

Memorandum                          Memoranda

Stratum                                   Strata

Agendum                                Agenda