Servant Leadership Theory – Weaknesses and Strengths

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ECONOMIC  PLANNING

 

ECONOMIC  PLANNING

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  • Planning is an economic mechanism for resource allocation and decision making.
  • It is the process in which the limited natural resources are used skillfully to achieve the desired goals.
  • It refers to any directing or planning of economic activity outside the mechanisms of the market.
  • The economic planning has been going on great since independence.
  • It has played a major role in the development of the country and led India become self sufficient.
  • The concept of economic planning in India is derived from the USSR ( now Russia).
  • Five year plan were implanted in the soviet union (USSR) in the year 1920.
  • IN India, the objectives and social premises of planning is derived from the Directive Principle of State Policy (DPSP) enshrined in the constitution.
  • Father of Indian Planning:- M. Visvesvaraya
  • The proposal relating to economic planning came for first time in 1934, in the book of Vishveshwaraiya titled “planned economy for India”. After that All India congress committee demanded for the same in 1938.
  • In 1944 , under Bombay Plan effort were made by 8 industrialists.
  • In 1944 , Gandhian Plan was given by Shriman Narayan Agarwal.
  • In 1945, People’s Plan was presented by N Roy.
  • In 1950, Sarvodaya Plan was presented by P Narayan.
  • After independence in 1947, the committee on economic planning was setup under the chairmanship of Pandit Jawaharwal Nehru. On the recommendation of this committee , Planning commission was setup in March 1950 ( now Planning commission changed into NITI Aayog on 1january 2015.)and format of first five year plan was prepared in 1951.

Type of Planning:-

  1. Imperative Planning:-
  • It is mainly exercised in the socialist economies.
  • In this, the Central Planning authority decides upon every aspect of the economy and set the targets.
  1. Indicative Planning:-
  • In this, the state set broad parameters and goals of the economy.
  • Since the 8th five year plan India adopted this type of planning.
  1. Perspective Planning:-
  • This type of planning is used for long period of time generally 15 to 20 years.
  • It is operationalised through the five year & annual plan.

 

 

  1. Rolling Plan:-
  • When janata party came to power in 1977-78, it rejected the 5th five year plan and decided to introduced a new 6th five year plan (1978-80),called rolling plan. And this plan was again rejected by congress in 1980 and new 6th plan was made by congress government.
  • Rolling plan consisted of three different plan:
  • Current :- a plan for the current year which includes the annual budget.
  • Fixed :- a plan for the fixed number of years like 3-4-5 years. And it is revised according to need of economy.
  • Long term :- also called perspective plan and used for long period like 10- 15 -20 years.

The National Development Council (NDC):-

  • set up on August 6, 1952.
  • It gives final approval to plans in India.
  • Member– The Prime Minister (its chairman). And all the Chief Ministers of the States, Lt. Governors of Union Territories, all Union Cabinet Ministers and other Planning Commission members (now NITI Aayog) are its members.

 

 

 

 

Plans Year Remarks/Objectives Target Growth rate Actual Growth
Ist 1951-

1956

Based on Harrod-Domar Model, Focus on Agriculture development, price stability, power and transport. Community Development Programme (CDP) and Family Planning Programme (FPP) were launched in 1952,National Extension Service (NES) was launched in 1953.Important multipurpose projects in India like Bhakra Nangal, Hirakud and Damodar Valley projects werealso launched.

 

 

 

 

2.1% 3.6%
 

2nd

 

1956-

1961

 

Based on Mahalanobis model(propounded by the      famous Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis ). Focus on public sector & heavy & basic industries, Industrial policy 1956.The three important steel plants of India were built during this Plan period. They are Durgapur (West Bengal) with British help, Bhilai (Chhattisgarh) with Russian help and Rourkela (Orissa) with German help.

 

 

4.5%

 

 

4.3%

3rd 1961-

1966

to make India a ‘self-reliant’ and’self-generating’ economy, agriculture was given top priority to support the exports and industry , Plan failed because India-china war in 1962, Drought in 1965, war with Pakistan in 1965-66 5.6% 2.8%
Three Annual Plans 1966-

67,

1967-

68,

1968-69

Due to miserable failure of the Third Plan the government was forced to declare plan holidays, Green Revolution
4th 1969-

1974

Indira Gandhi-PM, Nationalization of banks,India- Pak war in 1971, Nuclear test in 1974, Gadgil formula 5.7% 3.3%
5th 1974-

1979

Prepared by DP Dhar, High inflation, Removal of poverty (Garibi Hatao), Self Reliance, Emergency in 4.4% 4.8%

 

 

 

1975. In 1978 Janata Party Govt-Morarji Desai-PM rejected the 5th plan
Rolling plan 1978-

1980

Focus on employment. This plan was again rejected by the Congress Government in 1980
6th 1980-

1985

focus on  Increase in national income, modernization of technology, ensuring continuous decrease in poverty and unemployment,Population control 5.2% 5.7%
7th 1985-

1990

aimed at accelerating food grain production, increasing employment opportunities & raising productivity with focus on ‘food, work & productivity’.        . 5% 6%
Annual plans 1990-

1992

Crisis of foreign exchange, Beginning of  liberalization ,privatization and globalization` in India.
8th 1992-

1997

Worsening balance of payment position,rising debts, widening budget deficit, recession in industry, India became member of WTO in 1995, high growth of agriculture and allied sector,and manufacturing sector, growth in exports and imports 5.6% 6.8%
9th 1997-

2002

Started on completion of 50 years of independence, focus on “Growth With Social Justice & Equality, Focus on 7 basic minimum services 6.5% 5.4%
10th 2002-

2007

Employment generation. 5 crores Jobs creation target, States role in planning was increased with greater involvement of Panchayati Raj Institutions 8% 7.6%
11th 2007-

2012

Objective: Faster & More Inclusive Growth 9% 8%
12th 2012-

2017

Objective: Faster, Sustainable, and More Inclusive Growth 9%

 

PASSIVE VOICE FOR SSC CGL

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PASSIVE VOICE FOR SSC CGL

PASSIVE VOICE FOR SSC CGL

Active Voice

In Active voice the subject performs the action on the object .

General formula – Sub + verb + Obj

 

Passive Voice

In Passive voice the verb expresses the object on which the action is done by the object.

General formula – Obj + Helping verb + V3 + By + Sub

 

When we use passive voice ?

We generally use passive voice in those sentences –

 

Where the action matters and not the doer

 

         The old lady was declared dead.

 

Where the doer of the action is either unknown or irrelevant .

 

         The whole slum was shifted to the new defence colony .

When the subject itself can’t do the action .

 

 

          Trees were planted on the World Environment Day .

 

INDEFINITE TENSE

 

TENSE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
SIMPLE PRESENT SUB + V1 + OBJ OBJ + IS/AM/ARE + V3 + BY + SUB
SIMPLE PAST SUB + V2 + OBJ OBJ + WAS/WERE + V3 + BY + SUB
SIMPLE FUTURE SUB + SHALL/WILL + V1 + OBJ OBJ + SHALL/WILL + BE + V3 + BY + SUB

 

ACTIVE SENTENCES                                                        PASSIVE SENTENCES

 

The boss fired her .                                                                        She was fired .

I will not accept his proposal .                                                 His proposal will not be

                                                                                                              accepted by me .

She receive the award with dignity .                                   The award is received by

                                                                                                            her with dignity .

She learns dance here.                                                             Dance is learnt here by her.

The housekeeper cleaned the mess.                                   The mess was cleaned .

IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER

  1. In the first and last sentence we have not used “by + subject” and the reason behind this is many actions are done by a particular person only like –

  1. Only a boss can fire employee

  2. Generally a housekeeper or cleaner cleans the mess

So in such sentences “by + subject” is not required.

 

NOTE

We can’t convert a sentence in passive voice in which any form of “be” is used as the main verb of the sentence .

I was busy at that time.   (active voice)

(main verb)

The passive voice of the above sentence is not possible.

 

CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

TENSE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT CONTINUOUS SUB + IS/AM/ARE + V1 + ing + OBJ OBJ + IS/AM/ARE + BEING + V3 + BY + SUB
PAST CONTINUOUS SUB + WAS/WERE + V1 + ing + OBJ OBJ + WAS/WERE + BEING + V3 + BY + SUB

 

NOTE    

Passive voice of future continuous is not possible.  

Active                                                                              Passive

She was writing the letter .                        The letter was being written by her.      

He is giving water to plants.                      The plant are being given water by him .

They are expecting the announcement .  The announcement is being expected by them.

 

PERFECT TENSE

 

TENSE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT PERFECT SUB + HAS/HAVE + V3 + OBJ OBJ + HAS/HAVE + BEEN + V3 + BY + SUB
PAST PERFECT SUB + HAD + V3 + OBJ OBJ + HAS/HAVE + BEEN + V3 + BY + SUB
FUTURE  PERFECT SUB + SHALL/WILL + HAVE + V3 + OBJ OBJ +SHALL/WILL + HAVE + BEEN + V3 + BY + SUB

 

Active                                                                              Passive

She has received the parcel .                                       The parcel has been received by her .

She will have created the file by that time.               The file will have been created by her by          

                                                                                           That time .

They had left the village before the sun rose.          The village had been left by them

                                                                                             before the sun rose.

 

NOTE (TO +V1)

 

SUB + HAS/HAVE/HAD + TO + V1 + OBJ – ACTIVE VOICE

OBJ +  HAS/HAVE/HAD + TO + BE + V3 + SUB – PASSIVE VOICE

You have to complete this target on time. (Active voice)

This target has to be completed by you on time. (Passive voice)

She has to find the research papers from the company. (Active voice)

The research papers have to be found by her from the company. (Passive voice)

 

IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

Requests, suggestions, advice and commands are expressed through imperative sentences. Usually the subject is not mentioned in such sentences and the listener is the subject here.

 

Basically imperative sentence are of 3 types –

  1. With object

Pass the book . (active voice)

Let the book be passed . (passive voice)

             Or

You are ordered to pass the book.

 

General formula – Let + obj + be + v3

                                  Or

                            You are ordered/requested/forbidden/suggested + to + v1 + object  

 

  1. Without object

Get lost . (active voice)

You are ordered to get lost . (passive voice)

 

General formula –  You are ordered/requested/forbidden/suggested + to + v1 + object  

 

  1. Imperative sentences involving moral suggestions.

Respect the elder . (active voice)

The elders should be respected. (passive voice)

General formula – obj + should + be + V3

 

PASSIVE VOICE WITH MODALS

 

ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
SUB + MODAL + V1 + OBJ OBJ + MODAL + BE + V3 + BY + SUB
SUB + MODQAL + HAVE + V3 + OBJ OBJ + MODAL + HAVE +BEEN + V3 + BY + SUB

 

NOTE

Passive voice of modal continuous is not possible.

 

LINKING VERBS

Linking verbs are always followed by adjectives.

 

The food tastes delicious.     (active voice)

                         (Adjective)

 

The food is delicious when it is tasted  (passive voice)

 

General formula – SUB + VERB + ADJECTIVE + WHEN + PRONOUN + HELPING VERB + V3

 

Perfume smells fruity. (active voice)

The perfume is fruity when it is smelt . (passive voice)

 

Some of the linking verbs are –

Appear, be, become, feel. Get, look,  remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn

 

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

 

Basically there are two types of interrogative sentences –

 

 

  • The one that start with helping verbs

 

 

Has he removed the file from the desktop ? (active voice)

Has the file been removed by him from the desktop ? (passive voice)

 

Start the sentence with the helping verb which goes with the object of the sentence.

 

  1. The one that start with question words (what, why, when, where, why, how).

 

Why have you removed the file from the desktop ? (active voice)

Why have the fle been removed by you from the desktop ? (passive voice)

 

Start the sentence with the question word only.

 

PREVIOUS YEARS QUESTIONS OF VOICE

 

In the following questions, sentences have been given in Active/Passive Voice. Out of the four alternatives suggested, select the one which best expresses the same meaning  in Passive/Active Voice.  

 

  1. Rohit had written an essay on ‘Pollution’.

1) An essay on ‘Pollution’ was written by Rohit.

2) An essay on ‘Pollution’ had been written by Rohit.

3) An essay on ‘Pollution’ wrote Rohit.

4) An essay on ‘Pollution’ have been written by Rohit

 

  1. He had already torn the pages of the book.

1) The pages of the book has already been torn by him.

2) The pages of the book have already been torn by him.

3) The pages of the book had already been torn by him.

4) The pages of the book had already torn by him.

 

3.This word cannot be uttered by a sane man

1) A sane man did not utter this word.

2) A sane man will not utter this word.

3) A sane man cannot utter the word.

4) A sane man cannot utter this word.

 

  1. The national anthem is being sung by Jason.

1) Jason was singing the national anthem.

2) Jason is singing the national anthem.

3) Jason sings the national anthem.

4) Jason has sung the national anthem.

Correct Answer: Jason is singing the national anthem.

 

5.Can he complete the job in three weeks?

1) Can he in three weeks complete the job ?

2) Can’t the job be completed by him in three weeks ?

3) Can the job be completed by him in three weeks ?

4) He cannot complete the job in three weeks ?

 

  1. Grid failure brings five hundred trains to a halt.

1) Five hundred trains are being brought to a halt by grid failure.

2) Five hundred trains are brought to a halt by grid failure.

3) Five hundred trains were brought to a halt by grid failure.

4) Five hundred trains had been brought to a halt by grid failure.

 

  1. The teacher was pleased with his recitation.

1) His recitation pleases the teacher.

2) His recitation pleased the teacher.

3) His recitation will please the teacher.

4) His recitation has pleased the teacher.

 

  1. We saw her singing at her work.

1) Her singing was seen by us at her work.

2) Her singing was seen at her work by us.

3) She was seen being sung at her work by us.

4) She was seen singing at her work.

 

  1. They will help us with money.

1) We will be helped by them with money.

2) We should be helped by them with money.

3) We must be helped by them with money.

4) We could be helped by them with money.

 

  1. I was asked my name.

1) My name was asked for.

2) They asked me my name.

3) They asked my name from me.

4) My name was asked.

 

  1. Kamala was told the bad news as soon as she arrived.

1) Someone had told Kamala the bad news as soon as she arrived.

2) Some is telling Kamala the bad news as soon as she arrived.

3) Someone told Kamala the bad news as soon as she arrived.

4) Someone has told Kamala the bad news as soon as she arrived.

 

  1. The girl’s death has opened a can of worms.

1) A can of worms is being opened by the girl’s death.

2) A can of worms has been opened by the girl’s death.

3) A can of worms are being opened by the girl’s death.

4) A can of worms were being opened by the girl’s death.

 

  1. By that time tomorrow, they would have completed the work allotted to them.

1) By that time tomorrow, the work allotted to them would be completed by them.

2) By that time tomorrow, the work allotted to them would complete by them.

3) By that time tomorrow, the work allotted to them would be complete by them.

4) By that time tomorrow, the work allotted to them would have been completed by them.

 

  1. While I was on holiday, my camera was stolen from my hotel room.

1) While I was on holiday, somebody stole my camera from my hotel room.

2) While I was on holiday, my camera had been stolen from my hotel room.

3) While I was on holiday, they steal my camera from my hotel room.

4) While I was on holiday, they had stolen my camera from my hotel room.

 

  1. Do all the necessary tests soon.

1) All the necessary tests may be done soon.

2) Let all the necessary tests be done soon.

3) Let all the necessary tests were done soon.

4) All the necessary tests have to be done soon.

 

  1. She had locked the door, before she left.

1) She locks the door, before she leaves.

2) She locked the door and left.

3) The door was locked by her, before she took leave.

4) The door had been locked by her, before she left.

 

  1. Bravery and loyalty were rewarded by the king.

1) Reward was given for bravery and loyalty.

2) The King rewarded bravery and loyalty.

3) The king gave a reward for a bravery and loyalty.

4) For loyalty and bravery it is said that the king gave reward.

 

18.I remember them taking me to the zoo.

1) I remember having being taken to the zoo.

2) I remember to be taken to the zoo.

3) I remember being taken to the zoo.

4) I remember I was taken to the zoo.

 

  1. Who has destroyed Nagasaki?

1) By whom Nagasaki have been destroyed?

2) By whom has Nagasaki been destroyed?

3) By whom Nagasaki had been destroyed?

4) By whom Nagasaki has been destroyed?

 

  1. Arun has written a newspaper report on the inauguration of Delhi Metro Railways.

1) A newspaper report on the inauguration of Delhi Metro Railways have been written by Arun.

2) A newspaper report on the inauguration of Delhi Metro Railways had been written by Arun.

3) A newspaper report on the inauguration of Delhi Metro Railways is written by Arun.

4) A newspaper report on the inauguration of Delhi Metro Railways has been written by Arun.

 

  1. The old owl will listen to the squirrel’s problems, patiently.

1) The squirrel’s problems shall be listened patiently by the old owl.

2) The squirrel’s problems will be listened to patiently by the old owl.

3) The squirrel’s problems would be listened patiently by the old owl.

4) The squirrels problems should be listened patiently by the old owl.

 

  1. Parents elected him the chairman of PTA as he was the only talented contestant.

1) He was elected the chairman of PTA by parents as he was the only talented contestant.

2) He had been elected the chairman of PTA by parents as he was the only talented contestant.

3) He have been elected the chairman of PTA by parents as he is the only talented contestant.

4) He is elected the chairman of PTA by parents as he was the only talented contestant. Correct Answer: He was elected the chairman of PTA by parents as he was the only talented contestant.

 

  1. The movie will create tension in the Indian society.

1) Tension would be created in the Indian society by the movie.

2) The tension shall be created in the Indian society by the movie.

3) Tension will be created in the Indian society by the movie.

4) The tension can be created in the Indian society by the movie.

 

24.Late arrival of the Gomati Express created confusion among the passengers.

1) Confusion has been created among passengers due to the late arrival of the Gomati Express.

2) Confusion have been created among passengers due to the late arrival of the Gomati Express.

3) Confusion was created among passengers due to the late arrival of the Gomati Express.

4) Confusion is created among passengers due to the late arrival of the Gomati Express.

 

  1. The scorpion stung the farmer.

1) The farmer was stung by the scorpion.

2) The farmer had been stung by the scorpion.

3) The farmer is stung by the scorpion.

4) The farmer has been stung by the scorpion.

Correct Answer: The farmer was stung by the scorpion.

 

Answers

 

  • An essay on ‘Pollution’ had been written by Rohit.

 

    1. The pages of the book had already been torn by him.
    2. A sane man cannot utter this word
    3. Jason is singing the national anthem.
    4. Can the job be completed by him in three weeks ?
    5. Five hundred trains are brought to a halt by grid failure.
    6. His recitation pleased the teacher.
    7. She was seen singing at her work.
    8. We will be helped by them with money.
    9. hey asked me my name.
    10. Someone told Kamala the bad news as soon as she arrived.
    11. A can of worms has been opened by the girl’s death.
    12. By that time tomorrow, the work allotted to them would have been completed by them.  
    13. While I was on holiday, somebody stole my camera from my hotel room.
    14.  Let all the necessary tests be done soon
    15. The door had been locked by her, before she left.
    16. The King rewarded bravery and loyalty.
    17. I remember being taken to the zoo.
    18.  By whom has Nagasaki been destroyed?
    19. A newspaper report on the inauguration of Delhi Metro Railways has been written by Arun.
    20. The squirrel’s problems will be listened to patiently by the old owl.
    21. He was elected the chairman of PTA by parents as he was the only talented contestant.
    22. Tension will be created in the Indian society by the movie.
    23. Confusion was created among passengers due to the late arrival of the Gomati Express.
    24. Confusion was created among passengers due to the late arrival of the Gomati Express.

 

Current Affairs From The Hindu Month June 2017

Current Affairs From The Hindu Month June 2017

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  1. Current Affairs from The Hindu 01 JUNE 2017
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DAILY VOCABULARY 1

DAILY VOCABULARY 1

 

A large no.of pious people mustered to bolster the neophyte. But the obstinate moron gave an obscene performance which mutilated his career and the show was panned by the pivotal critics.

 

PIOUS – deeply religious, devoted to a particular religion

(adjective)

Synonyms –  dedicated, devoted, loyal, good

Antonyms –  disloyal, faithless, false, fickle, inconstant

 

MUSTERED– to gather together (a group of people, soldiers, etc.)

(verb)          to work hard to find or get (courage, support, etc.), an act of assembling

Synonyms – gathering, assembly, meeting

 

BOLSTER – to support or strengthen, to hold up or serve as a foundation for

(verb)

        

Synonyms – support, uphold, brace

Antonyms – to weaken something 

 

NEOPHYTE – a person who has just started learning or doing something

(noun)       

   

Synonyms- proselyte, beginner

Antonyms –  expert, master, professional, veteran 

 

OBSTINATE –  refusing to change behaviour or ideas , stubborn

(adjective)  

   

Synonyms – adamant , bullheaded, hardheaded, immovable, obdurate

Antonyms – acquiescent, agreeable, amenable, compliant

 

MORON – a very stupid or foolish person

(noun)

 

 

OBSCENE –  very offensive in usually a shocking way

(adjective)   abhorrent to morality or virtue

Synonyms- bawdy, indecent, lewd, vulgar

Antonyms –  clean, decent, non obscene

 

MUTILATE– to cause severe damage to

(verb)

     

Synonyms – cripple, disable, incapacitate

Antonyms –  heal, rehabilitate  

 

PAN –  to criticize (a book, movie, play, etc.) severely

(verb)

 

PIVOTAL – central and most important

(adjective)

Synonyms –  critical, key, crucial, vital

Antonyms –  insignificant, minor, trivial, unimportant