Perceptionthe way you think about or understand someone or something

(noun)             a result of perceiving

Synonyms – discernment, perceptiveness, sagacious


Reinforced – to strengthen (a group of people) with new supplies or more people

(verb)             to strengthen (something, such as clothing or a building) by adding more

                     material for support

(reinforces, reinforced, reinforcing)


Promptingto cause (someone) to do something

(verb)            to be the cause of (something)

                    to say (something that encourages a person to talk)

(prompts, prompted, prompting)

Grandfather reading with granddaughter

Prompt – noun/adjective/adverb

I prompted her to participate in the competition.


Exasperate – to make someone very angry or annoyed


Exasperated / exasperating- adjective   

Exasperatedly – adverb

I am exasperated by the delay of the train.


Perpetuate – to make something everlasting

(verb)                   Continuing forever

(perpetuates, perpetuated, perpetuating)

Perpetual – adjective       

Perpetually- adverb

They perpetuated the myth that their daughter is a goddess.


Bumpy having sudden up and down movements

(adjective)      having a lot of problems, uneven

(Bumpier , Bumpiest )

Bumpiness- noun

Bumpily – adverb

It has been a bumpy year for the company.


Dent – to decrease something

(verb)      To make something weaker

               To make a dent in

(dents, denting, dented)

Their released tape dented the reputation of the party.


Excerpt – a small part of longer written work

(noun/verb)  to include (part of a longer written work) in something else

(excerpts; excerpted; excerpting)

“I am mad for chocolates”- excerpted from an interview of sushmita sen.


Resilience the ability of something to return to its original shape after it has been pulled,

(noun)                  stretched, pressed, bent, etc.

                            the ability to become strong, healthy, or successful again after something

                            bad happens, elasticity

Resilience of spring


Nimble -able to learn and understand things quickly and easily

(adj.)              able to move quickly, easily, and lightly

(nimbler, nimblest)

He is very nimble.





1. Misogynist – a man who hates women


He is a misogynist boss, always laughing over his women employees.

2. Writa document from a court ordering someone to do something or not to do

(noun)   something

The court issued a writ to stop the usage of tobacco.

3. Diaspora – a group of people who live outside the area in which they had lived for a long

(noun)          time or in which their ancestors lived

The Indian diaspora that lives in the U.S. is coming back home.


4. Perilous – full of danger

(adjective)   involving danger

(more perilous, most perilous)

Perilously – adverb

Peril – noun

He stand perilously on the edge of the mountain.

The movie was perilously close to fiasco.


5. Inoculation – the introduction of a pathogen or antigen into a living organism to stimulate

(noun)                 the Production of antibodies.

                              to give (a person or animal) a weakened form of a disease in order to

                                 Prevent infection from the disease.

Children have been inoculated by hepatitis -B.

As leaders we have to be built with that inoculation that you will face either big or small crisis during your career.


6. Xenophobia – fear or hatred of strangers or foreigners


Xenophobic – adjective

Being a xenophobic, he killed Indians.


7. Provenancethe history of ownership of a valued object or work of art or literature

(noun)                origin or source of something

Have you traced the provenances of this pottery art ?


8. Explicit – very clear and complete

(adj.)           leaving no doubt about the meaning

                  Opposite of ambiguous

(more explicit, most explicit)

Explicitly – adverb

Explicitness – noun

He explicitly asked for another coffee.


9. Implicit – not clearly or directly stated

(adj.)          unquestionable

Implicitly- adverb

Implicitness – noun

So how we behave according to our gender, or our religious and cast identities, is influenced by a set of social rules, some explicit and many implicit.


10. Bruisingextremely rough or painful


bruising violence




  1. Brutalgrossly ruthless or unfeeling

  (adj.)   extremely cruel or harsh

             very direct and accurate in a way that is harsh or unpleasant

(more brutal, most brutal)

Brutally – adverb

They brutally murdered him for no specific reason.

He had a brutal heart attack last year.


  1. Daunting – to make (someone) afraid or less confident

(T. verb)      to lessen the courage of

(daunts, daunting, daunted)

Synonyms- discourage, demoralize

Antonym – embolden, encourage

Daunting – adjective

Raman was not at all daunted by the SBI exam.


  1. Ignominy – a situation or event that causes you to feel ashamed or embarrassed

(noun)          disgraceful or dishonorable conduct, quality, or action

She have to face the ignominy for not representing the report on time.


  1. Averted – to turn (your eyes, gaze, etc.) away or aside

(T. verb)     to prevent (something bad) from happening

(averts, averted, averting)

His perfect planning of the function averted any inconvenience.

She has to avert her eyes from the bleeding man.


  1. Vulnerable – open to attack, harm or damage

(adjective)      easily hurt or harmed physically, mentally, or emotionally

(more vulnerable, most vulnerable)

Vulnerability – noun

Vulnerableness- noun

Vulnerably – adverb

She is vulnerable to that disease.

She is very vulnerable after her break up.


  1. Hinder – to make slow or difficult the progress of

(verb)       to stop (someone) from (doing something), to hold back

(hindered, hindering)

The road was hindered by construction.

Lack of money hindered him from buying the car.


  1. Impromptu – made or done without preparation


I made an impromptu drawing in the competition and won the consolation prize.

They had an impromptu party for unexpected guests.

Impromptu speaking.


  1. Miser – a person who hates to spend money

(noun)     one who is extremely stingy with money

Synonyms – niggard, penny pincher, cheapskate, scrooge

There is no miser in this state.


  1. Ponder – to think about or consider something carefully

(verb)         to think or consider deeply

(ponders, pondered, pondering)

Synonyms – mull, contemplate, perpend

She pondered again on the situation and decided her opinion.

He pondered the advantages and disadvantages oh his job.


  1. Supercilious – having or showing the proud and unpleasant attitude of people who think

(adjective)            that they are better or more important than other people

                        having or showing an attitude of superiority and contempt for people or

                         things perceived to be inferior

(more supercilious, most supercilious)

Synonyms – haughty, bumptious

Superciliously – adverb

Superciliousness – noun

She looked at her clothes and laughed superciliously.

She is behaving very superciliously.


Indian Polity Judiciary of India

Indian Polity -“Judiciary of India”

Important Concepts based on Indian Polity- “Judiciary of India”


  1. One of the unique features of the Indian constitution is that, notwithstanding the adoption of a federal system and existence of central acts and State Acts in their respective spheres.
  2. It has generally provided for a single integrated system of Courts to administer both union and state laws.
  3. At the apex of the entire Judicial System, exists the supreme court of India below which are the High courts in each state.
  4. The Judiciary is an integrated system, Furthermore the hierarchical level goes like –  Supreme court> High Court > District Court> Lok Adalats Panchayati Raj Institutions
  5. The Supreme court is the Highest Court and is “ Guardian of the Constitution”. Also it is the Interpreter of the Constitution.
  6. The constitution of India provides for a unified Judiciary System and there is no division of powers in Judiciary between Centre and State.
  7. On the other Hand Constitution of other countries like USA provides Double System of Courts.
  8. On 28th January, 1950 The Supreme Court Came into Existence and also the parliament is authorised to regulate courts.
  9. Currently there are 23 Sitting Judges with maximum strength of 31 Judges in the Supreme court including 1 chief justice of India.
  10. Initially there was a Chief Justice of India followed by 7 other judges.


Qualifications of Judges-

  1. He should be citizen of India.
  2. He Should have at least 5 years of experience  as a judge of High Court.
  3. Otherwise he should have 10 years of Experience as an Advocate in High Court.
  4. Except all these cases if a person is a distinguished Jurist i.e if he has exceptional  law knowledge.


Article 124(4) 

Removal of Supreme Court Judge

  1. A person is removed as a Supreme Court Judge on two grounds-
    1. If the person is proved with any kind of Misbehavior.
    2. If the person is having incapacity to act as a judge.
  2. Method of removal –
    1. The resolution of removal can be moved in either house and requires special majority for its passage.
    2. The final order is given by the president.


  1. Writ Jurisdiction ( article 32)- The provision of this jurisdiction is given in Fundamental rights ( Soul of Constitution).
  2. Original Jurisdiction- In this cases which are exclusively meant for supreme court
  3. Appellate Jurisdiction- This is the appeal given by Supreme Court on the Judgement of High Court.
  4. Advisory Jurisdiction- In this Supreme Court may give advice to Government on the Matters referred to it on a presidential reference.


Miscellaneous Points on Supreme Court Judge-

  1. The Senior most Judge of Supreme court is Appointed as the Chief Justice Of India (CJI).
  2. The Supreme Court Judge may resign to president.
  3. The Oath of the Office is administered by the President.
  4. Salary and other incentives are charged on Consolidated Fund of India (CFI) which is decided by the Parliament.
  5. A retired Judge of Supreme court shall not act as advocate in any court.



  1. Vandalismthe act of deliberately destroying or damaging public or private property


They were arrested for vandalism.


  1. Benevolent –  kind and generous

(adjective)        organized to do good things for other people

(more benevolent, most benevolent)

Benevolently – adverb

Benevolentness – noun

There are many benevolent societies in our state for orphans.

He is of benevolent nature , always helping the needy.


  1. Ferocious – very violent

(adjective)     very strong or intense

(more ferocious, most ferocious)

Ferociously – adverb

Ferociousness – noun

The ferocious thunder increased my fear.

He was fighting ferociously with his team members.


  1. Acrimonious – angry and bitter

(adjective)           having or showing deep-seated resentment

(more acrimonious, most acrimonious)

Acrimoniously – adverb

Acrimoniousness – noun

There was an acrimonious debate between two friends.

  1. Vow – oath , pledge

(noun)    a serious promise to do something or to behave

He has taken a vow to fight against corruption.


  1. Hound – a type of dog that has very good sense of smell and is trained to hunt

(noun)       a person who is very determined to get something especially for a collection

              to chase or bother (someone or something) in a constant or determined way

Hound – verb

(hounds, hounded, hounding)

Photograph hounds

They hounded the actor for his autograph.


  1. Gait – a particular way of walking

(noun)   a sequence of foot movements

Heels give you an awkward gait .


  1. Cohesive – closely united

(adjective)      causing people to be closely united

(more cohesive, most cohesive)


Even with different thinking they are cohesive friend.

Different from mind cohesive at heart.


  1. Tame – not wild, to make (an animal) tame (tame horse)

(verb)       to make (something) less wild or to bring something under control

(tames, tamed, taming)

Tamely – adverb

Tameness- noun

Tame – adjective

His ferocious anger is always tamed by his daughter.


  1. Ambiguity -something that does not have a single clear meaning


  Ambiguous- adjective

By listening her ambiguous statement, i got confused.





Invincible – unbeatable , unconquerable

(adjective)    impossible to defeat or overcome

Synonyms –  indomitable, insurmountable, invulnerable


Invincibility – noun

Invisibleness – noun

Invincibly – adverb

The continuous 5th time winning of Serena Williams proved that she is invincible.


Lofty – tall, high, towering               

(adj.)       extending to a great distance upwards

The mountains in Manali are lofty and beautiful.


Acronym – a word formed from the first letters of each one of the words in a phrase


World Health Organisation- WHO


Lynch – to kill (someone) illegally as punishment for a crime

(verb)       to put to death (as by hanging) by mob action without legal approval or permission

(lynches, lynching, lynched)

The lynching of Mohammad Akhlaq in Dadri.


Pernicious -deadly, causing great harm or damage


Perniciously – adverb

Perniciousness – noun

Japan has  pernicious effects of earthquake.


Amicable – friendly,

(adjective)     showing a polite and friendly desire to avoid disagreement and argument

Synonyms – harmonious, unanimous, compatible

Amicability – noun

Amicableness – noun

Amicably – adverb

Both the countries reached an amicable discussion.


Veiled – able to be seen or understood but not openly shown or stated

(adjective)   expressed in a way that is not clear and direct , hidden

                 having or wearing a veil

Synonyms – cover, covering, curtain, mask

His veiled feelings become clear when she met with an accident.


Deceptive – likely to make someone believe something that is not true

(adjective)    intended to make someone believe something that is not true

Synonyms – deluding, deceiving, beguiling, deceitful

His deceptive eyes make me believe his statements and i gave the whole money to him.


Euphemism -a mild or pleasant word or phrase that is used instead of one that is

(noun)               unpleasant or offensive

Euphemistic – adjective

Euphemistically – adverb

What is the euphemism for the people who deceive others with their clever skills ?


Baffling -to confuse or frustrate (someone) completely, confusing


(baffles, baffled, baffling)

Baffling – adjective (more baffling, most baffling)

Bafflement – noun

Bafflingly – adverb

She gave me a baffling look when i asked her about my ring.

Rohan always baffles me with his demands.


Indian Polity : Types of Bills ( Contd.)


Types of Bills ( Contd.)

Important Points from Types of Bills ( Contd.)

As discussed earlier there are Four types of bills – Ordinary Bill, Money Bill, Constitutional Amendment  Bill and financial Bill.


Indian Polity : Types of Bills ( Contd.)

  1. Ordinary Bills-

    1. A Bill which is not Money or constitutional Amendment Bill.
    2. It can be introduced in Either House.
    3. This bill requires simple majority for its passage.
    4. Rajya Sabha has all the powers on an ordinary bill. It can pass, amend or reject the bill.
    5. As according to article 108 the Joint Sitting is applied.
    6. After passing this bill is sent to President.


Note– The President gives his assent and then  bill becomes law or Act. President may return the bill also but this can be done once only. This process is known as Pocketing Veto.  


2.    Constitutional Amendment bill-

  1. The provision is given in the article 368.
  2. It can be introduced in either house.
  3. This bill can be passed by special Majority only.
  4. Rajya Sabha has all the Powers.
  5. President is bound to give his assent.
  6. There are some bills which requires the ratification  by at least the half of the states.
  7. This includes- Some provision of  SC/HC, representation of states in parliament, Distribution of Powers In Schedule  VII ( Three Lists).
  8. According to Article 368 : the constitution can be amended in 3 Ways –
  1. i) By Special majority of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
  2. ii) By Special majority of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha and majority of States.
  3. iii) By Simple Majority.


3. Financial Bill –

A bill which contains at least 1 matter of article 110, and at least 1 matter outside art 110 is called a financial bill.

 Matters of Article 110 (1)-

  1. Regulation of borrowing by the government.
  2.  Custody of the Consolidated Fund of India.
  3. Imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax.
  4. Payments into or withdrawals from these Funds;
  5. Appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India (CFI).
  6. Declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure.
  7. receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of India or the public account of India or the custody or issue of such money or the audit of the accounts of the Union or of a State.
  8. Any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in (1) to (7).

So, concluding, any Bill that relates to revenue or expenditure is a Financial Bill.

A Money Bill is a special kind of Financial Bill.

It is defined very precisely and deals only with matters mentioned Above. A money bill is assented by the Speaker of Lok Sabha.

Best Delhi/Ncr Coaching for SSC CGL 2017



Pronoun – for noun

Pronoun are the words that are used in place of noun.

Garima is my friend. Garima lives in delhi. Garima is beautiful.

Garima is my friend. She lives in delhi. She is beautiful.

So we can say that to avoid the repetition of noun in a sentence,pronoun is used.


                       Types of pronouns

1.Personal pronouns

These pronoun denote three persons of the english language.

I, me, we, us, you, he, him, she, her, it, they, them


English language consider three types of persons.

1st person– The one who is speaking

2nd person-The one who is listening

3rd person-About whom the 1st and 2nd person are talking


Rule no.1

If singular form of all the above mentioned three persons come in a single sentence, the order of the persons should be-

                                  2nd person>3rd person>1st person

You,  he and I shall go to market in the evening.

You and she have made a beautiful drawing.

She and I shall do this work.


Rule no.2

If singular form of all the three persons or two out of three persons come in a single sentence and some mistake is committed by all the three persons together then, the order of the persons should be-

                                   1st person>2nd person>3rd person

I, you and she have committed a crime.

You and he have done this disobedience.


Rule no.3

If plural form of the three person come in a single sentence then the order of the three person should be-

                                  1st person>2nd person>3rd person

We, you and they will go to market in the evening.


Subjective and objective form of personal pronouns-




                      I                          me
                     We                          us
                    You                          you
           She, He, It                  Her, him, it
                They                       Them


Rule no.4

Whenever there is a comparison between two people then always a subject is compared with a subject and an object is compared with an object.

She is as beautiful as I.

He is more intelligent than I.

I know you as much as her.


Rule no.5

The following words are always followed by an objective case-

Let, like, between……..and, except, but, and all prepositions.

Let me go there.

There is nothing between him and me.

Everyone was going to school except her.

Everybody but her was present for the cooking class.

I do not depend on him ( preposition )


2.Possessive pronouns

These are the pronouns that show possession.


Possessive adjective                             Possessive pronoun

        My                                                           Mine

       Our                                                           Ours

      Your                                                          Yours

      Their                                                         Theirs

       His                                                             His

       Her                                                            Hers


Rule no.1

Possessive adjective is used with nouns. We can not use possessive pronoun with nouns.


Yours book was of blue colour which i lost during vacations.(possessive pronoun) (wrong)

Your book was of blue colour which i lost during vacations.(possessive adjective) (correct)


Rule no.2

Possessive pronoun can be used as the subject and object of the sentence.


Hers is a beautiful garden. (subject)

Theirs is a new laptop. (subject)

This car is mine. (object)

She has lost my kit as well as yours. (object)


Rule no.3

Apostrophe is not used with possessive pronoun.

Yours faithfully


Rule no.4

We can use possessive pronoun as the object of the preposition.

Your car is better than hers.


Rule no.5

Always use possessive adjective with Gerunds(verb(1st form)+ing).

He was very happy about his getting engaged.

She was not sure of their teaching classes.


Rule no.6

With the following words ,possessive pronoun can’t be used-

Separation, excuse, pardon, leave, favour, mention, sight, report


3.Reflexive pronouns

A pronoun is referred as reflexive pronoun when the subject and the object of the sentence are the same person or you can say that when the subject of the sentence is performing the action on himself.

Myself, yourself, ourselves, themselves, yourselves, herself, himself, itself, oneself

She have hurt herself.

I cut myself.

The poor woman poisoned herself and her children.

Reflexive pronouns are always used after the verb.


Rule no.1

With the following words we use reflexive pronoun only when these words are used as verbs and they don’t have an object with them-

acquit, avail, reconcile, amuse, resign, avenge, exert, apply, adapt, adjust, pride, absent and enjoy

He resigned himself to the buddhism.

She absented herself from the class.

She acquitted herself well during the strike.


Rule no.2

We do not use reflexive pronouns with the following words-

Keep, stop, turn, qualify, move, bathe, rest and hide


Rule no.3

We can not use reflexive pronoun as the subject and object of the sentence.

Myself Rohan from Delhi.(wrong) (I am Rohan from delhi.)

He is not giving the red book to myself.(wrong) (he is not giving the red book to me).


4.Emphatic pronouns

These are the pronouns which are used to put emphasis on the subject of the sentence.

Myself, yourself, ourselves, themselves, yourselves, herself, himself, itself, oneself


You yourself will go to the market and bring some fruits for her.

She herself will bring those notebooks.

These pronouns are always used before the verb.


5.Demonstrative pronoun

These are the pronouns that are used to point at person/things.

This, that, these, those, such, the same


This- for nearby singular person or thing.

This is my friend Garima.

This is my book.


That- for far off singular person or thing.

That is my car.

That is my friend.


These- for nearby plural persons or things.

These are my friends.

These are my notebooks.

Those- for far off plural persons or things.

Those were my notebooks.

Those were my friends.


6.Relative pronouns

Relative pronouns basically behave as a conjunction as they connect a noun or pronoun to the clause or phrase.

Who, whom, that, which


Who Is always used for persons (as a subject)
Whom Is always used for persons (as an object)
Which Is always used for non-living and animals


This is the animal which gives us milk.

The T.V. which you bought yesterday is not working well.


Examples For whom and who :-


  1. he is the man who you say loves everyone a lot . 


        Subject no.1          – he

        Helping verb no.1 – is

        Subject no.2         – who

        Helping verb no.2 – loves

        Subject no.3         – you

        Helping verb no.3 – say   


  1. She is a beautiful woman who you say everybody admires a lot .- Wrong

           She is a beautiful woman Whom you say everybody admires a lot.- Correct


        Subject no.1          – she

        Helping verb no.1 – is

        Subject no.2         – you

        Helping verb no.2 – say

        Subject no.3         – everybody

        Helping verb no.3 – admires  


  1. Everybody greets Vishal who she treats a terrorist – Wrong

   Everybody greets Vishal whom she treats a terrorist – Correct


        Subject no.1          – Everybody

        Helping verb no.1 – greets

        Subject no.2         – she

        Helping verb no.2 – treats


  1. You can defeat Ashish whom has defeated everyone – Wrong

   You can defeat Ashish who has defeated everyone – Correct


       Subject no.1          – You

        Helping verb no.1 – can

        Subject no.2         – who

        Helping verb no.2 – has


  1. Raman is your very good friend whom everyone can trust.- Correct


        Subject no.1          – Raman

        Helping verb no.1 – is

        Subject no.2         – everyone

        Helping verb no.2 – can


Use of ‘that’


Rule no.1

We should always use ‘that’ with superlative degree.


Positive degree                     Comparative degree                Superlative degree

        Tall                                          Taller                                            Tallest

      Good                                         Better                                            Best

     Beautiful                                More beautiful                             Most   beautiful

        Dry                                         Drier                                              Driest

   Powerful                                 More powerful                              Most powerful


She is the most beautiful girl that i have ever seen.


.Rule no.2

All + uncountable noun is always followed by ‘that’.

All the crockery that i gave her was very precious


All +non living things is always followed by ‘that’.

All that glitters not gold.


Rule no.3

There are certain words with which ‘that’ is used-

Everything, nothing, the only, any, everyone, none, no, nobody, much, little

This is the only thing that she gifted her.

The little money that i have, was spent on shopping.

I have nothing that i needed.


7.Distributive pronouns

These pronouns denote person or things of a group individually and do not consider them as collectively.

Each, either, neither, none, any, one


Each – is always used for two or more than two.

Either- are always used for only two.

Neither – are always used for only two.

One – are always used for more than two

None – are always used for more than two


Rule no.1

When the above mentioned words are used with nouns then they are considered as adjectives but when these words come with some other words than noun then they behave as distributive pronouns.


When the sentence starts with each of/ either of/ neither of/ none of/ one of then the initial noun and pronoun should be in plural form but in the remaining sentence singular verb, singular pronoun and singular adjective will be used.


One of my sisters are good at mathematics.(Wrong).

One of my sisters is good at mathematics.(Correct).


One of my students  deserve the first Prize in Science Olympiad.(Wrong).

One of my students  deserves the first Prize in Science Olympiad. (Correct).


Either of the players are going to do the bowling. (Wrong).

Either of the players is going to do the bowling.(Correct).


Neither of the two girls have gone for shopping.(wrong)

Neither of the two girls has gone for shopping.(correct)


None of them knew how to do the dressing themselves.(wrong)

None of them knew how to do the dressing himself.(correct)

Each of the girls should go out and bring their notes.(wrong)

Each of the girls should go out and bring her notes.(correct)


Rule no.2

In the above sentence each is working as the subject of the sentence. If each comes after the subject of the sentence then the verb of the sentence will be according to the subject.


We each have told him to stop criticizing her.

Subject of the sentence-We

Here have is used for we.


8.Reciprocal pronouns

These pronouns show mutual relationship between the nouns.

Each other- to show the mutual relationship between two people or two things

One another-to show mutual relationship between many people or many things


Ram and Sita are living with each other.

The two brothers laughed at each other.

People on diwali exchange sweets with one another.


9.Indefinite pronouns

These are general words used for nouns .

Anyone, no  one, someone, everyone– always use singular verb and masculine gender singular

                                                              pronoun and  singular adjective with these                                                                                                                       

Anybody, nobody, somebody, everybody– always use singular verb and masculine gender singular

                                                              pronoun and  singular adjective with these       

Everything, nothing anything, something-always use singular verb and it, its, itself for these


Everyone should take his roll no. with him while going to the examination hall.,

Everything should be kept in its order.



Both is used for two people or two things.


Both of the girls are going out for shopping.


We can not use both in negative sentences.

Both of them are not going out for shopping.(wrong)

Neither of them is going out for shopping. (correct)



If a sentence comes in the following form-


One of the+noun/pronoun(plural)+relative pronoun(who/that)

Then the verb should be used according to the noun/pronoun.

She is one of the people who have fought for their membership.


It is I who is to blame.(wrong)

It is I who am to blame.(correct)




One-subject of the sentence


Ones-plural form

One’s-possessive form

Oneself- pronoun


One should do one’s duty oneself.

These ones are my notebooks.



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Written by Niyati chaudhry





Indian Polity – Joint Sitting and Types Of Bills

Indian Polity – Joint Sitting and Types Of Bills

Important Points from Indian Polity – Joint Sitting and Types Of Bills

Powers and privileges of Member of Parliament (MP)-

  1. The MP has freedom of Speech and Expression in Parliament.
  2. MP is granted freedom from Arrest under civil Cases. This freedom is granted 40 days before the session, during  the session and 40 days after the session.
  3. There will be no arrest under criminal cases.
  4. He or she has freedom from Jury Service during the session
  5. The MP has right to regulate Proceedings of the house .
  6. He also has right to allow Publication and Broadcasting of the Proceedings of the house.
  7. He has Right to Allow Publication and Broadcasting of the proceedings  of the house.
  8. The MP has Right exclude Strangers from the House.
  9. He has Right to Punish Members and Strangers for violation of Privileges and Contemporary of House.


Joint Sitting

  1. It is called by the President
  2. It is called when there arises a deadlock over a bill between the houses.
  3. Such kind of bill is voted Jointly  and requires simple majority for its passage.( Simple majority means 1 vote more than 50%)
  4. The joint sitting is always presided by the Speaker of Lok Sabha or Deputy Speaker  or Deputy Chairman.
  5. The joint Sitting is rarely called. The past examples of joint sitting are-
    1. 1961- Dowry Bill
    2. 1978 – Banking commission
    3. 2002 – POTA  Act

Types of Bills-

There are Four types of bills – Ordinary Bill, Money Bill, Constitutional Amendment  Bill and financial Bill.

 Money Bill-

i) The provision of Money bill is given in article 110.

ii) This includes the six matters of money including the taxes and finance matters.

iii) Any bill related to this six matters is known as a money bill.

iv)Also a bill which contains 1 or more matters mentioned in article 110 is called a money bill.

v) it is certified so by speaker of lok sabha that whether it is a money bill or not.

vi) The Money bill can only be introduced in Lok Sabha and on recommendation of President of India.

vii) The Money bills requires Simple Majority for its passage.

viii) On a Money bill Rajya Sabha has no real powers . That means-Rajya Sabha cannot pass, amend or Reject a money bill.

ix) Atmost, Rajya Sabha can Suggest some changes in the bill to the Lok Sabha Separately. Such Suggestions are not binding on lok Sabha.

x) If the lok Sabha accepts the suggestions the Bill is not required to be sent to Rajya Sabha Again.

xi) If the Rajya Sabha does not gives any response to bill after its receiving up to 14 days, then it is automatically deemed ( Assumed) that it has been passed in Rajya Sabha.

xii)  After that the money bill is passed to the president for his consent. The president may give his assent to the bill or shall not return ( Pocketing Veto) or may withhold it ( Not possible).


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Powers of Lok Sabha

Powers of Lok Sabha

Important concepts from Powers of Lok Sabha

Special Powers of Lok Sabha –

  1. The “ No Confidence motion” can be introduced and passed only in Lok Sabha.
  2. This power of Lok Sabha is as per article 75 (clause 3).
  3. A Money Bill can be introduced only in Lok Sabha.
  4. In the case of Emergency, it can be revoked by the president on the recommendation of Lok Sabha Alone.

Common provisions of both houses –

  1. According to article 85 the president shall summon the houses in such a way that the gap between the last sitting of first session and first sitting of the next session shall not be more than 6 months.
  2. He shall prorogue the houses.
  3. He may dissolve the Lok sabha.


Sessions of lok Sabha-

Session I (Budget Session) –

  1. It is the longest Session ( From February to May).
  2. This session includes the address of the president to the cabinet.
  3. The Railway Budget is presented by Ministry of Railways which was separated by acworth committee in 1921. Now it has been merged with General Budget from financial year 2017-18.
  4. The Indian Railways is the largest employer of the World.
  5. The Economic Survey of India is presented before producing the General Budget.
  6. The General Budget is presented by the Finance Minister which is written by Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Economic Affairs.

Session II (Monsoon)-

  1. It occurs in the month of July- September.

Session III ( Winter) –

  1. This session takes place in the month of November- December.

Special Session-

  1. Sometimes on special occasion , special sessions also takes place.  
  2. In the year 1997 50 years of Independence was celebrated so a special session took place.

Special Hours of Session

  1. First Hour – It takes place from 11AM – 12PM and is known as Question Hour as it is Notice Based.
  2. Zero Hour – The Zero hour starts from 12 noon. In this session the members of session raises the Questions of Importance. This session cannot be delayed.
  3. The Lok Sabha is conducted daily.
  4. The Rajya Sabha is run Alternatively and it is proposed Daily.

Disqualification of Members of Parliament (MPs)

  1. A member is disqualified if He or She is Non-Citizen.
  2. One should not have any non registered office of Profit otherwise the member is disqualified.
  3. Also a member is disqualified in case Insolvency ( Liabilities > assets)
  4. If a person has or developed Unsound Mind.
  5. If the person is charged under any other Law.