Indus Valley civilisation I

Indus Valley Civilisation

Important points about Indus Valley Civilisation

Indus Valley civilization

  1. The civilization is also known as Harappa civilization. The name is given as Indus valley civilisation as it flourished along the Indus river.
  2. IVC is one of the oldest civilisations of the world and the worldwide accepted time period is from 2500 BC to 1700 BC. ( Note : BC refers to “Before Christ” )
  3. IVC was discovered by Dayaram Sahni  in 1921.
  4. The name Harappan civilisation was given by the John marshall of East India Company  who was the then director general of Archaeological Survey of India.
  5. Indus valley civilization belonged to Bronze Age or Chalcolithic Age.. Time wise it can be said that IVC was in Neolithic Age.


Sites of Indus valley civilisation:


  1. In 1921 the Civilisation was excavated by Dayaram Sahni on the banks of Ravi.
  2. In 1922  Rakhali das Banerjee (RD Banerjee) found Mohen-jo-daro.  Mohen-jo-daro means mound of death. The city was famous for its Great Bath.
  3. In 1953  Kalibangan was excavated on the banks of saraswati.
  4. In 1957 lothal  was found on the Gulf of Kambay. A dockyard was found here. Hence, lothal was considered important port city of Indus valley civilisation.
  5. In 1991/1992 Dholavira was found in Kutch.
  6. A great number of sites were found in the state of gujarat.


Geographical Location of Indus valley civilisation:

  1. The civilisation spreaded to major part of North Western India, Afghanistan, Baluchistan and Sind.
  2. In India it spreaded in the parts of West Punjab, Gujarat, Uttar pradesh, Haryana, rajasthan, jammu and kashmir and  Maharashtra.


Features of Indus Valley Civilisation:


  • Town Planning : The Town planning was a unique feature of Indus Valley Civilisation which differentiated it from rest of the civilisations.


    1. It was not uniform. The town was divided into two parts such that in the Western part there were Forts which were higher known as Citadel. The Eastern part was comparatively lower town.
    2. Dholavira was an Exception city of IVC in town Planning.  As it had three divisions and consisted a middle part also.


  • Grid Pattern :  The IVC had grid pattern or Blocks also known as Chessboard Pattern.


  1. The Roads cut each other at  90 degrees of angle.
  2. The Houses were made of Mud Bricks and Burnt Bricks.
  3. The Indus Valley Civilisation had a well defined Drainage System.

Indian Polity : The Speaker

Indian Polity : The Speaker

The Post is dedicated to Provide important  concepts for the topic Indian Polity : The Speaker


a) He is the head of the house and also represents the house.

b) He is considered as the guardian of the Powers of members and also the privileges of the members.

c) He is the person who certifies a bill to be a Money bill.

d) The Money bill is exclusively presented and passed by the lok sabha. The Money bill is powered by the speaker of lok  sabha.

e) The speaker is the head of the lok sabha secretariat.

f) As per the convention – The speaker has to resign from the membership of his political party.

g) Also the speaker loses its right to vote on any matter in the house in the first “instance”.

h) The Speaker posses the power of “Casting Vote”. The Casting Vote refers to a vote which breaks the equality of votes. Whenever such a condition arises that there is a equality of votes then speaker can vote on such matter. Such a a type of vote is called Casting vote.

i) All the presiding officers of parliament have only casting vote.

j) There is no Oath for the post of speaker. The speaker resigns to deputy speaker and Deputy Speaker resigns to Speaker.

k) The speaker continues in his position until before the beginning of new Lok Sabha.

l) If the Speaker is member of any parliamentary committee, then he becomes automatically its chairman.


Sl No.

Name of speaker


Political Party




Lok Sabha

1 Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar 15 May 1952 27 Feb 1956 3 years, 288 days 1st Indian National Congress ( INC)
2 M A Ayyengar 8 March 1956 10 May 1957 1 year, 63 days
11 May 1957 16 April 1962 4 years, 340 days 2nd
3 Sardaar Hukam Singh 17 April 1962 16 March 1967 4 years, 333 days 3rd
4 Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy 17 March 1967 19 July 1969 2 years, 124 days 4th
5 Gurdiyal Singh Dhillon  8 August 1969 19 March 1971 1 year, 221 days
22 March 1971 1 December 1975 4 years, 254 days 5th
6 Baali Ram Bhagat 15 January 1976 25 March 1977 1 year, 69 days
(4) Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy 26 March 1977 13 July 1977 109 days 6th Janata Party ( JP)
7 K. S Hegde 21 July 1977 21 January 1980 2 years, 184 days
8 Balraam Jhaakkar 22 January 1980 27 oct 1984 3 years, 358 days 7th Indian National Congress ( INC)
16 January 1985 18 December 1989 4 years, 336 days 8th
9 Raabi rai 19 December 1989 9 July 1991 1 year, 202 days 9th Janata Dal (JD) 
10 Shivraaj Patil 10 July 1991 22 May 1996 4 years, 317 days 10th Indian National Congress (INC)
11 P A Sangama 23 May 1996 23 March 1998 1 year, 304 days 11th
12 G M Baalyogi 24 March 1998 19 October 1999 1 year, 209 days 12th Telugu Desam Party
22 October 1999 3 March 2002 2 years, 132 days 13th
13 Manohar Joshi 10th  May 2002 2nd June 2004 2 years, 23 days Shiv Sena
14 Somnath Chatterjee 4th June 2004 31st May 2009 4 years, 361 days 14th Communist Party of India ( Marxist) (CPI M)
15 Meera Kumari 4 June 2009 4 June 2014 5 years, 0 days 15th Indian National Congress (INC)
16 Sumitra Mahajan 5 June 2014 till Date 2 years, 231 days 16th  Bhartiya Janta Party ( BJP)


Indian Polity : LOK SABHA

Indian Polity : LOK SABHA

Indian Polity : LOK SABHA

Lok Sabha ( House of People)


  1. Not More than 530 members.
  2. These members are elected directly from Union Territories.
  3. There are two Anglo-Indian Members who are nominated by President.
  4. The System of Directly election by the people is known as First Part the Port System.
  5. 530+13+2 = 545 Total no. seats  
  6. Total Vacancy available is 552 but Strength sanctioned is not more than 545.
  7. It will be revised after 10 years.
  8. In 1952, it was constituted and was revised in 1961. The Second Revision took place in 1971.
  9. The Second revision was frozen by 42nd/1976  for 25 years.
  10. By the 84th/ 2001 extended till 2026.
  11. The 1971 census is used in the election of President.
  12. Lok Sabha is the Lower house of parliament is known as House of People.


Tenure –

a) The tenure is of 5 years.

b) Before 5 years the lok sabha can be dissolved by the president. This Process is known as Dissolution.

c) However, it can go beyond 5 years in case of emergency.

d) Parliament can extend tenure but only one year at a time. This can be done any no. of times till emergency is revoked. 



 The Qualification of a member of lok sabha is as follows-

a) He should be citizen of India.

b) He should posses at least 25 years of Age.

c) There should be no office of profit.

d) Also there should be a registered profit.


Officers of Lok Sabha-

Protem speaker-

a)  There shall be a Protem speaker- appointed by the President. The Protem Speaker is the temporary speaker.

b) The oath as a member of  speaker is administered by he President.

c) The oath to other members is administered by the Pro-tem Speaker.

d) The Date of election of speaker is decided by the president.


Speaker and Deputy Speaker

a) Members choose two members among them – one as speaker and other as Deputy speaker.

b) The Speaker and Deputy speakers may be removed by the members by effective majority after a Fourteen day Notice.

c) The First speaker of India was GV Mavlankar. He had been the longest speaker of India from 15 August, 1947.

d) Balram Jakkar had been the longest speaker from the beginning of Indian Constitution( 1950).






Chronology of Indian History : Part II

Chronology of Indian History: Part II

Chronology of Indian History : Part II

Chronology of Medieval Indian History

Period Events
750 -1000 AD Three Party Struggle –

  1. Gurjara Pratihara- Dynasty of Western India.
  2. Pal dynasty – The Dynasty of Bengal.
  3. The Rashtrakutas of Deccan.

These three party fought for kannauj.

Kannauj was Important political and Economic capital and centre of  North India.

900 AD-1100 AD These era was of Rajput Dynasty.
1001 – 1030 AD Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni. (Capital)
1175- 1206 AD Mohammed  Ghori
1191/92 Battle of Tarain- there were two battles of tarain  and in the second battle the Prithvi Raj Chauhan was defeated.
1206 – 1526 AD The Qutub -ud -din Aibak was the Governor of Mohammed Ghori.
1526 AD The First Battle of Panipat.
1526 AD – 1707 AD The Mughal Empire ( The Capital of Empire was Agra )
Some Foreign Travellers
1498 AD – 1757 AD Vasco- de – Gama (Portuguese Traveller)

The Period of European companies from Vasco- de gama to Battle of Plassey.

Chronology of Modern India-

Period Events
1757 AD Battle of plassey – took place on June 23rd, 1757 at plassey in Bengal. British Empire won the battle.
1757 AD – 1857 AD Rule of East India Company- The Company developed Headquarters at calcutta.

Calcutta was the then Capital of India.

1857 AD  The revolt of 1857 took place. Till 1857  Governor General ruled the country.It was the first Indian rebellion against the British East India Company. The battle took place from  10th may, 1857 to 8 July, 1859 .
1858 AD The Government of India Act,
1858 AD – 1947 AD Direct Rule of Crown
1885 AD Indian national congress- It was founded by Allan Octavian Hume ( AO HUME) . The First Indian president was Womesh Chandra Bannerjee ( W C Bannerjee)
1885 AD- 1947 AD Freedom Struggle
Some Important Movements
1905 AD 1908 AD Anti- Partition Movement- Partition of Bengal
1916 AD – 1917 AD Home rule Movement
1921 AD – 22 AD Non Cooperation movement
1930 AD – 1934 AD Civil Disobedience Movement
1942 AD Quit India Movement
1946 AD Cabinet Mission
1947 AD Mountbatten plan- Indian Independence Act ( Crown Rule will end)
1757 AD Battle of plassey
1757 AD – 1857 AD Rule of East India Company- The Company developed Headquarters at calcutta.

Calcutta was the then Capital of India.

1857 AD  The revolt of 1857 took place. Till 1857  Governor General ruled the country.
1858 AD The Government of India Act,
1858 AD – 1947 AD Direct Rule of Crown
1885 AD Indian national congress
1885 AD- 1947 AD Freedom Struggle
Some Important Movements
1905 AD 1908 AD Anti- Partition Movement- Partition of Bengal
1916 AD – 1917 AD Home rule Movement
1921 AD – 22 AD Non Cooperation movement
1930 AD – 1934 AD Civil Disobedience Movement
1942 AD Quit India Movement
1946 AD Cabinet Mission
1947 AD Mountbatten plan- Indian Independence Act ( Crown Rule will end)

Indian Polity : Council of Ministers and Union legislation

Council of Ministers and Union Legislature 

Council of Ministers and Union Legislature 

Council of Ministers

  1. It comprises –  Cabinet Ministers , Ministers of State and Deputy ministers.
  2. There is a cabinet meeting headed  by cabinet secretary in which all these ministers are called.
  3. The cabinet secretary is the senior most secretary who maintains the co-ordination among the members of cabinet  meeting.

Article 74

  1. There shall be  a council of  ministers with Prime minister at the head to aid and advise the president.

Article 75

  1. The Prime Ministers is appointed by the President and other ministers are also appointed by the president on the advice of Prime minister.
  2. Prime Minister may be elected  by the Prime minister himself
  3. Prime Minister may be selected by party.
  4. He may be appointed by the president.
  5. A minister  individually shall be responsible to president.
  6. If Prime minister resigns or dies in the office all the other ministers have to resigns.
  7. A minister who has not become a member of either  house within six Months of his becoming.
  8. So, shall not continue as Ministers at the end of such period.


Union Legislature

Article 79-

  1. There shall be a [parliament  comprising President, lok sabha, Rajya Sabha.
  2. The rajya sabha is also known as Council of States.
  3. The Lok Sabha is also known as House of the People.


Rajya Sabha-

  1. It is also called Upper house.
  2. House of elders.
  3. House of Wisdom.



  1. It comprises of not more than 238 members elected by MLA’s of States/ UT’s by PRs/STV.
  2. The Rajya Sabha  also comprises of two Anglo -Indian Seats.
  3. The total no. of seats Available in Rajya Sabha is 250.
  4. The 12 members of rajya sabha are directly nominated by


  1. It was constituted in 1952 and still  going  on.
  2. Though the members do have their tenure.
  3. The tenure is of 6yrs.



  1. A person should be  a Citizen of India.
  2. He should be at least 30 years of age.
  3. There should be no office of profit.
  4. Also there should be a registered office of profit.


Officers of Rajya Sabha –

  1. There is a chairman who is not the member of House.
  2. There is also a Deputy Chairman.
  3. There is also Panel of Chairmen.


Special Powers of Rajya Sabha-


Article 249

  1. Parliament can make law on any matter of State List, if the members of Rajya Sabha pass a resolution in that regard.

Article 312

  1. Parliament can create a new all India Service if members of Rajya Sabha pass a resolution in that regard.
  2. All India Service- Common to Union and States cadre based ( IAS, IPS, IFS)


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Chronology of Indian History: Part I

Chronology of Indian History: Part I

Points to Ponder in Chronology of Indian History: Part I


a) The word periodisation refers to the process in which history is categorized to facilitate its study and analysis.

b) The categoristion is done on the basis of Discrete and Quantified Events  of time.

c) The periodisation of Indian history is-

i) Ancient India – Upto 750 AD ( AD means Anno Domini – Year of christ)

ii) Medieval India – From 750 AD to 1707 AD

iii) Modern India – From 1757 AD to 1947 AD


Chronology of Indian History:

a) The term Chronology is derived from two latin words –  “Chronos” which means time and “Logos” which means science.

b) It refers to the science of arranging events in the order of their occurrence.

c) For instance, timeline of events.

d) It can also be considered as determination of actual sequence of past events.


Chronology of Ancient India



2350- 1750 BC                             Indus Valley Civilisation.

Before this period is considered as prehistory. Because the written evidences for this period was not there.

1500 – 600 BC Vedic Age/ Aryan Age – this Period is famous for Oldest scriptures of Hinduism
1500 – 1000 BC Early Vedic Age- Agricultural advancements, Religion development, killing of animals.
1000 – 600 BC Later Vedic Age
600 BC Age of Transformation – New Changes evolved.

Religious Changes – Rise of New Sects : Buddhism and Jainism.

Political Changes – State Formation. There was formation of Sixteen Great States known as Shodash Mahajanapadas

600 – 25 BC Magadh Empire ( Capital- Pataliputra) In this Era the empires came with capital.  
321- 185 BC Maurya Dynasty – This period was considered as extensive Iron age historical power. This period dominated the Ancient India.
150 – 250 BC Post Mauryan Period- This period observed onslaught of many foreign travellers. These travellers belong to mainly North western part of World.
319 – 550 AD Gupta Dynasty/ Empire- In this period India was ruled by numerous regional kingdoms.
550 – 750 AD Post Gupta Period- This period was considered as weak period due to absence of a Great Leader or Emperor.
606- 647 AD Era of Harshwardhan- He was from Haryana. The capital was kannauj. It was Important capital after patliputra.





Important points from INDIAN POLITY   ‘THE VICE PRESIDENT’

The Vice – president of India-

  1. The  provision of Vice president is given the article 63.
  2. According to  article 63 There shall be a Vice  president of India.
  3. Article 64 as that the Vice president shall act as the ex-officio chairman of Rajya Sabha.
  4. The Vice president Shall act as the President in case of vacancy ( i.e Death, removal or any other reason)
  5. The provision of Qualification of  Vice President is given article 66.



  1. The vice president should be the Citizen of India.
  2. He or she should have completed 35 years of Age.
  3. The vice president should  not hold the office of profit.
  4. He should be qualified to become the member of Rajya Sabha.



  1. The method of election of vice president is indirect.
  2. The election takes place by the members of an electoral college which consists members of lok sabha and rajya sabha.
  3. The name of this kind  of election is called Proportional representation by the means of single transferable vote. (PR/STV)
  4. The voting is done by secret ballot.


Oath and Tenure-

  1. The Oath of the vice president is administered by the President.
  2. In case president is not available then the oath is administered by the person appointed by the president.
  3. The provision of oath is given in article 69 of Indian constitution.
  4. The tenure of the office is 5 years. The provision of tenure of vice president is given article 67.


  1. The Vice president acts  as Ex- officio chairman of Rajya  Sabha.
  2. The Vice President acts as president in the absence of the president that can be in the case of Death, absence from the country,.
  3. While doing he will draw the the salary as president and not the chairman of Rajya Sabha.
  4. Given below is the list of vice- presidents of India.

Vice Presidents of India



Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 13-May-52 to 12-May-62
Dr. Zakir Hussain 13-May-62 to 12-May-67
Sh. Varahagiri Venkata Giri 13-May-67 to 3-May-69
Gopal Swarup Pathak 31-Aug-69 to 30-Aug-74
Basappa Danappa Jatti 31-Aug-74 to 30-Aug-79
Justice Mohammad Hidayatullah 31-Aug-79 to 30-Aug-84
Ramaswamy Venkataraman 31-Aug-84 to 24-Jul-87
Shankar Dayal Sharma 3-Sep-87 to 24-Jul-92
Kocheril Raman Narayanan 21-Aug-92 to 24-Jul-97
Krishan Kant 21-Aug-97 to 27-Jul-02
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat 19-Aug-02 to 21-Jul-07
Mohammad Hamid Ansari 11-Aug-07 to Incumbent

Indian Polity ” The President”

Indian Polity ” The President”

Important points from Indian Polity ” The President”

The President

Article 52

  1. The provision of president is given in article 52.
  2. There shall be a president who shall be elected by an electoral college, comprising all elected MP, All elected MLAs, including MLAs of Delhi and Pondicherry.
  3. This article represent India as republic.
  4. 14 MPs can not take part in this election.
  5. People take part in election indirectly.
  6. The system of election is called ‘PRS/STV’  i.e Proportional Representation System and Single Transferrable Vote. (PRS/STV).
  7. He is the first citizen of India.


Tenure (Article 56)-

  1. Tenure is of 5 years.
  2. Before that it can end on three conditions-
    1. May resign from the office
    2. May die in office or
    3. Impeachment


Qualification of President-

  1. Citizen of India
  2. He Should have completed  35 years of age.
  3. He should be qualified to become member of lok sabha.
  4. He  should not hold any office of profit.

Powers of President-

  1. He is the formal head of the administration
  2. The president shall have the power to appoint and remove high authorities like the prime ministers, other ministers of the Union, judges, governors of the states, appoints Chiefs of the Army , Navy and Air force.
  3. He appoints 12 members of Rajya Sabha and two anglo Indians in lok Sabha.
  4. He also posses the pardoning powers.
  5. He is the one who declares the wars and concludes peace in a nation.
  6. President of india also have veto power.
  7. He can also promulgate ordinances when parliament is not in session.
  8. He also have the Emergency powers-
    1. To declare National Emergency.
    2. To impose president’s rule in a state.
    3. To Declare the financial Emergency.
  9. Given below is the List of presidents of India.

Presidents of India




Dr. Rajendra Prasad January 1950 to May 1962

Dr Radhakrishnan

May 1962 to May 1967

Dr Zakir Hussain

May 1967 to May 1969

V V Giri

May 1969 to August 1974

Dr Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed

August 1974 to February 1977

Neelam Sanjiva Reddy

July 1977 to July 1982

Zail Singh

July 1982 to July 1987

R Venkataraman

July 1987 to July 1992

Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma

July 1992 to July 1997

K R Narayanan

Dr APJ Abdul Kalam

July 1997 to July 2002

July 2002 to July 2007

Pratibha Devisingh Patil

July 2007 to July 2012

Dr Pranab Mukherjee

July 2012 to Current


Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) and Fundamental Duties

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) and  Fundamental Duties

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) and Fundamental Duties

Rights to Constitutional  Remedies (Article  32)

  1. In case of violation of fundamental Rights the person can approach the supreme court directly.
  2. The Supreme court shall issue orders including ‘WRITS’ in that regard.
  3. This article can be called as guardian of  Fundamental rights.
  4. This was referred as “Heart and Soul” of part III of Indian Constitution.

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) (article 36- 51)

  1. These are a set of suggestions for Policy Makers .
  2. Whenever making any Policy , one should follow these Directive Principles.
  3. These principles are welfare oriented and fundamental in the Governance of the Nation.
  4. Fundamental rights are compulsions but directive principles are suggestions not compulsions.
  5. These are Non – Justiciable Rights so cannot be triad through courts.
  6. The aim for Directive Principles is to Make India a Welfare State.
  7. Concept of DPSP was taken from ireland.
  8. It was taken as Instrument of Instruction.

Article -40

  1. State Shall establish rather organise Village panchayats as Units of Local Self Government.
  2. Balwant rai mehta committee is associated with Panchayati raj Institution.
  3. In every village there should be-
    1. Gram panchayat
    2. Panchayat Samiti
    3. Zila Parishad
  4. Panchayats had been given constitutional status in the time of Narsimha Rao.

Article -41

  1. State shall provide employment to people as per its economic capacity.
  2. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act- (MGNREGA)

Article- 44

  1. State shall implement Uniform Civil Code.
  2. For matters of marriage Different religions have different norms.

Article -45

  1. There should be provision of Care and Education for Children upto the age of 14 yrs.
  2. In this Schemes like “Mid Day Meal” is included.

Article -48

  1. State shall organise agriculture and animal husbandry in modern and Scientific way.

Article -51

  1. State shall Promote International Peace.


Fundamental Duties

a) Swaran singh committee recommended the addition of fundamental duties.

b)The concept of fundamental duties is borrowed from USSR.

c) The Provision of Fundamental Duties is given in article 51A.

The Fundamental Duties are-

  1. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and National Anthem.
  2. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for Freedom.
  3. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
  4. To defend the country and render national service when called upon so
  5. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of
  6. India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
  7. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
  8. To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life and to have compassion for living creatures
  9. To develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform
  10. To safeguard public property and abjure violence.
  11. To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.
  12. Every parent or guardian is to provide opportunities for education to his/her child or ward between the age of 6 and 14.

Indian Constitution Part III Fundamental Rights

Indian Constitution Part III Fundamental Rights

Here are some Important points Indian Constitution Part III Fundamental Rights


a) The Fundamental rights are part of Indian constitution.

b) These are basic rights which are considered very essential for the overall development of an Individual.

c) Fundamental Rights are considered as justiciable rights as one can aim for justice through courts.

d) These rights can also be suspended and are always restricted. Furthermore , there are certain rights which are not suspended even at the time of emergency.

Right to Equality ( Article 14 to Article 18)

It is one of the fundamental Right. It includes the following points-

  1. Equal protection of laws- it refers that law is same for each and every one.
  2. It prohibits the  discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. There is also provision of positive discrimination ( Reservation, Income tax) i.e like should be treated Alike.
  3. Equal access to shops, hotels, wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads etc.
  4. One should have Equality of opportunity in public employment- There shall be equality of opportunities in the matters of employment under the state. There shall be no discrimination while doing so. However, state can make special  provision for backward classes.   
  5. There should be Abolition of Untouchability as per the Civil Rights Act- 1955 (76)
  6. Abolition of titles- State shall not confer any title upon any individual. No indian can except any title from any foreign State. However, educational and military achievements  


Right to Freedom (Article 19 to Article 22)

The below points comes under Right to freedom-

    1. Protection of Right to – freedom of speech and expression i.e press.
    2. Assemble peacefully –  freedom to assemble peacefully.   
    3. Form associations/unions – Union, like trade union, except defence, police, Military, cannot form Union all other employees can form.
    4. Move freely throughout the territory of India- (Except Scheduled Areas)
    5. Reside and settle in any part of India
    6. Practise any profession
    7. To carry on any occupation
    8. Trade or business.
    9. Protection in respect of conviction for offences
    10. Right to life and personal liberty
    11. Right to education
    12. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases


Right against Exploitation Article23 to Article 24)

In this fundamental below points are included-

  1. Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour
  2. Prohibition of employment of children in hazardous jobs


Right to Freedom of Religion (Article  25-Article 28)

  1. Freedom of conscience and free profession.
  2. Practice and propagation of religion.
  3. Freedom to manage religious affairs.
  4. Freedom to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion
  5. Freedom to attend religious instruction or worship in certain educational institutions.


Cultural and Educational Rights (art 29 to 30)

  1. a)  Protection of language, culture of minorities
  2. b)  Right of minorities to establish educational institutions
  3. c)  Right to Constitutional Remedies
  4. d)  Right to move the courts to issue directions/orders/writs for enforcement of rights.